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Medicine and Surgery in the United States.

The position of physician-general of the colony of Virginia was held one year by Lawrence Bohun, who arrived 1610; and afterwards by John Pot, the first permanent resident physician in the United States. Samuel Fuller, first physician of New England, arrived in the Mayflower in 1620, and Johannes la Montagne, first permanent medical settler in New Amsterdam, arrived 1637, followed the next year by Gerrit Schult and Hans Kiersted, while Abraham Staats settled at Albany prior to 1650. Lambert Wilson, a “chirurgeon” or surgeon, was sent to New England in 1629 to serve the colony three years, and “to educate and instruct in his art one or more youths.”

Anatomical lectures were delivered in Harvard College by Giles Firman be fore1647
Earliest law to regulate practice of medicine in the colonies was passed in Massachusetts in 1649; adopted by New York1665
Earliest recorded autopsy and verdict of a coroner's jury was made in

Maryland on a negro supposed to have been murdered by his master; surgeons received fees for “dissecting and viewing the corpse,” one hogshead of tobaccoSept. 24, 1657
Treatise on small-pox and measles published at Boston by Thomas Thacher; a sheet 15 1/2 × 10 1/2 inches—the first medical work published in America1677
First quarantine act passed by the General Assembly of Pennsylvania1700
First general hospital chartered in the colonies—Pennsylvania hospital of Philadelphia—organized 1751, openedDec., 1756
Medical department, University of Pennsylvania, founded1765
College of Physicians and Surgeons, medical department of King's College, New York, established1767
First clinical instruction in America given by Thomas Bond in Pennsylvania hospital1769
Term “doctor” first applied to medical practitioners or “physitians” in America (Toner1769
Medical department, Harvard University, founded1783
Philadelphia Dispensary for the gratuitous treatment of the sick poor, first in the United States, established1786
Earliest example of a special American Pharmacopoeia is a thirty-two-page work of William Brown, published at Philadelphia, and designed especially for the army1788
“Doctors' mob” in New York1788
New York Dispensary organized Jan. 4, 1791; incorporated1795
Elisha Perkins, of Norwich, Conn., patents his “metallic tractors,” afterwards known as “Perkinism” 1796
First original American medical journal, the Medical repository, appears1797
Medical department of Dartmouth College established1798
First general quarantine act passes CongressFeb. 23, 1799
First vaccination in United States performed by Benjamin Waterhouse, professor in Harvard College, on his four childrenJuly, 1800


First vaccine institute in the United States organized by James Smith in Baltimore, Md1802
American Dispensatory published by John Redman Coxe1806
Ovariotomy performed incidentally by Robert Houston in Glasgow (1701) and by L'Aumonier, in Rouen (1781), is performed by Ephraim McDowell, of Kentucky1809
United States vaccine agency established by Congress (discontinued in 1822)1813
Work on Therapeutics and Materia Medical, the first in the United States and best in the English language at that time, published by Nathaniel Chapman1817
John Syng Dorsey, of Philadelphia, author of Elements of Surgery (1814), and first surgeon to tie the external iliac artery, died (aged 35)1818
New York Eye and Ear Infirmary founded1820
Pennsylvania Eye and Ear Infirmary, Philadelphia, founded1822
Benjamin W. Dudley, founder of the medical department, University of Transylvania, Lexington, Ky., trephines the skull for epilepsy, probably the first instance in the United States1828
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, founded1829
Dispensatory of the United States of America, first published by Franklin Bache and George B. Wood1833
Oesophagotomy first performed by John Watson, of New York; case reported1844
Water-cures introduced into the United States by R. T. Trall, who opened a hydropathic institute in New York in 1844, and Joel Shew, at Lebanon Springs, N. Y.1845
Left subclavian artery tied by J. Kearney Rodgers1846
Collodion first applied to surgical purposes by J. Parker Maynard in Boston1847
Elizabeth Blackwell graduated M. D. at the medical school of Geneva, N. Y. (the first woman in the United StatesJan., 1849
First excision of the hip-joint in the United States performed by Henry J. Bigelow, professor in Harvard College1852
Elkanah Williams, of Cincinnati, earliest specialist in ophthalmology, begins practice1855
Arteria innominata tied for the first time by Valentine Mott, of New York (1818) ; by R. W. Hall, of Baltimore (1830); by E. S. Cooper, of San Francisco (1859) ; and again, being the first case in which the patient's life was saved, by A. W. Smyth, of New Orleans1864
Horace Green, said to have been the first specialist in diseases of the throat and lungs, died1866

Centennial international medical congress held in Philadelphia1876
New York Polyclinic organized 1880-81, opened1882
Valentine Mott, of New York, reports four apparently successful inoculations for hydrophobia, performed by himselfOct., 1886
The ninth international medical congress held in WashingtonSept. 5-101886
International medico-legal congress opens in Steinway HallJune 4, 1889
Fortieth meeting of American Medical Association opens in Newport, R. I.June 25, 1889
Experiments with the Brown-Sequard life elixir cause the death of ten people in Shamokin, PaAug. 16, 1889
The stetho-telephone is patented by James Louth, ChicagoJan. 27, 1890
The twelfth annual congress of the American Laryngological Association meets in BaltimoreMay 29, 1890
New York Institution for the Diseases of the Eye and Ear is incorporated and opened as a free hospitalAug. 19, 1890
American Institution of Homoeopathy meets in Washington, D. C.June, 1892
Pan-American medical congress in Washington is opened by President ClevelandSept. 5, 1893
Fifteenth annual meeting of the American Medico-Psychological Association in PhiladelphiaJune 15, 1894
Triennial congress of American Association of Physicians and Surgeons opens in Washington, D. C.May 29, 1894

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