Associate families of the Algonquian nation.
They were seated on the Detroit River
and Saginaw Bay
when the French
discovered them, but were driven beyond Lake Michigan
by the Iroquois
Settling near Green Bay
, they took in the Foxes, and they have been intimately associated ever since, especially in wars.
Roving and restless, they were continually at war with the fiery Sioux
, and were allies of the French
against the latter.
In the conspiracy of Pontiac
(q. v.), the Sacs were his confederates, but the Foxes were not; and in the wars of the Revolution and 1812 they were friends of the British
They were divided into a large number of classes distinguished by totems of different animals.
They remained faithful to treaties with the United States
until Black Hawk
(q. v.) made war in 1832, when Keokuk
, a great warrior and diplomat, remained faithful.
The Foxes proper were first known as Outagamies (English
“foxes” ). They were visited in their place of exile with the Sacs by the Jesuit
, in 1667, when they numbered 500 warriors.
The missionaries could make very little impression upon them.
When De Nonville
made his campaign against the Five Nations, the united Sacs and Foxes joined him, as they had De la Barre
in 1684, but they soon became friendly to the Iroquois
, and proposed to join their confederacy.
In 1712 they attacked Detroit
, and hostilities were carried on for almost forty years, when they joined the French
in their final struggle to hold Canada
The Foxes befriended the white people in Pontiac
's War. Since the War
of 1812 the history of the Sacs and Foxes is nearly the same.
In 1899 there were seventy-seven Sac and Fox Indians
of the Missouri
at the Pottawattomie and Great Nehama agency in Kansas
; 388 Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi
at the Sac
agency in Iowa
; and 521 of the latter band of the Sac
agency in Oklahoma