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Sac and Fox Indians,

Associate families of the Algonquian nation. They were seated on the Detroit River and Saginaw Bay when the French discovered them, but were driven beyond Lake Michigan by the Iroquois. Settling near Green Bay, they took in the Foxes, and they have been intimately associated ever since, especially in wars. Roving and restless, they were continually at war with the fiery Sioux, and were allies of the French against the latter. In the conspiracy of Pontiac (q. v.), the Sacs were his confederates, but the Foxes were not; and in the wars of the Revolution and 1812 they were friends of the British. They were divided into a large number of classes distinguished by totems of different animals. They remained faithful to treaties with the United States until Black Hawk (q. v.) made war in 1832, when Keokuk, a great warrior and diplomat, remained faithful. The Foxes proper were first known as Outagamies (English “foxes” ). They were visited in their place of exile with the Sacs by the Jesuit missionary Allouez, in 1667, when they numbered 500 warriors. The missionaries could make very little impression upon them. When De Nonville made his campaign against the Five Nations, the united Sacs and Foxes joined him, as they had De la Barre in 1684, but they soon became friendly to the Iroquois, and proposed to join their confederacy. In 1712 they attacked Detroit, and hostilities were carried on for almost forty years, when they joined the French in their final struggle to hold Canada. The Foxes befriended the white people in Pontiac's War. Since the War of 1812 the history of the Sacs and Foxes is nearly the same. In 1899 there were seventy-seven Sac and Fox Indians of the Missouri at the Pottawattomie and Great Nehama agency in Kansas; 388 Sacs and Foxes of Mississippi at the Sac and Fox agency in Iowa; and 521 of the latter band of the Sac and Fox agency in Oklahoma.

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Fox Indians (2)
De Nonville (1)
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