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City and capital of the State of Mississippi; on the Pearl River and several important railroads; is a large cotton-shipping centre and has extensive manufactories; population in 1890, 5,920; in 1900, 7,816.

In 1863, while the troops of General

Senate Chamber at Jackson, Miss.

Grant were skirmishing at Raymond, he learned that Gen. Joseph E. Johnston was hourly expected at Jackson. To make sure of that place, and to leave no enemy in his rear, Grant pushed on towards Jackson. McPherson entered Clinton early in the afternoon of May 13, without opposition, and began tearing up the railway between that town and the capital. Sherman was also marching on Jackson, while McClernand was at a point near Raymond. The night was tempestuous. In the morning, Sherman and McPherson pushed forward, and 5 miles from Jackson they encountered and drove in the Confederate pickets. Two and a half miles from the city they were confronted by a heavy Confederate force, chiefly Georgia and South Carolina troops, under General Walker. General Crocker's division led the van of the Nationals, and [92] a battle began at eleven o'clock, while a shower of rain was falling. The Confederate infantry were in a hollow, with their artillery on the crest of a hill beyond them. Crocker pressed the Confederates out of the hollow and up the slopes to their artillery. Still onward the

Governor's mansion at Jackson, Miss.

Nationals pressed in the face of a severe fire, when the Confederates broke and fled towards the city, closely pursued for a mile and a half to their earthworks. Under a heavy storm of grape and canister shot poured upon their works, the Nationals reformed for the purpose of making an assault; but there was no occasion, for the garrison had evacuated the fort. They left behind them seventeen cannon, and tents enough to shelter a whole division. The commissary and quartermaster's stores were in flames. The city was taken possession of by the Nationals, and the stars and stripes were unfurled over the State House by the 59th Indiana Regiment. Entering Jackson that night, Grant learned that Johnston had arrived, taken charge of the department, and had ordered Gen. J. C. Pemberton to march immediately out of Vicksburg and attack the National rear.

After the fall of Vicksburg, Johnston hovered menacingly in Grant's rear. Sherman had pushed out to press him back. Grant sent Sherman reinforcements, giving that leader an army 50,000 strong. With these he crossed the Big Black River, during a great drought. In dust and great heat the thirsty men and animals went on to Jackson, Johnston retiring before them and taking position behind his breastworks there. Sherman invested Jackson, July 10, each flank resting on the Pearl River. He planted 100 cannon on a hill, and opened on the city, July 12; but his trains being behind, his scanty ammunition was soon exhausted. In the assault, General Lauman pushed his troops too near the Confederate works, and in the course of a few minutes 500 of his men were killed or wounded by sharp-shooters and the grape and canister from twelve cannon. Two hundred of his men were made prisoners. Under cover of a fog, Johnston made a sortie, July 13, but with no beneficial result, and on the night of July 16-17 he withdrew with his 25,000 men, hurried across the Pearl River, burned the bridges behind him, and retreated to Morton. Sherman did not pursue far, his object being to drive Johnston away and make Vicksburg secure. For this purpose he broke up the railways for many miles, and destroyed everything in Jackson that might be useful to the Confederates.

Jackson, Andrew

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