will not fail to carry out the sectional purposes for which it has been abolished.
There must be conflict; and the weaker section of the Union
can only find peace and liberty in an independence of the North
The repeated efforts made by South Carolina
, in a wise conservatism, to arrest the progress of the General Government
in its fatal progress to consolidation, have been unsupported, and denounced as faithless to the obligations of the Constitution
by the very men and States who were destroying it by their usurpations.
It is now too late to reform or restore the Government
of the United States
All confidence in the North
is lost in the South
The faithlessness of half a century has opened a gulf of separation between them, which no promises or engagements can fill.
It cannot be believed that our ancestors would have assented to any union whatever with the people of the North
if the feelings and opinions now existing among them had existed when the Constitution
There was then no tariff — no negro fanaticism.
It was the delegates from New England
who proposed, in the Convention
which framed the Constitution
, to the delegates from South Carolina
, that if they would agree to give Congress the power of regulating commerce by a majority, they would support the extension of the African slave trade for twenty years. African
slavery existed in all the States but one.
The idea that they would be made to pay that tribute to their Northern confederates, which they had refused to pay to Great Britain
; or that the institution of African
slavery would be made the grand basis of a sectional organization of the North
to rule the South
, never crossed their imaginations.
The union of the Constitution
was a union of slaveholding States.
It rests on slavery, by prescribing a representation in Congress for three-fifths of our slaves.
There is nothing in the proceedings of the convention which framed the Constitution
, to show that the Southern States
would have formed any other Union; and still less that they would have formed a Union with more powerful non-slaveholding States, having a majority in both, branches of the Legislature of the Government
They were guilty of no such folly.
Time and the progress of things have totally altered the relations between the Northern
and Southern States since the Union
That identity of feelings, interests, and institutions which once existed, is gone.
They are now divided between agricultural, and manufacturing, and commercial States--between slave holding and non-slaveholding States.
Their institutions and industrial pursuits have made them totally different people.
That equality in the Government
between the two sections of the Union
which once existed, no longer exists.
We but imitate the policy of our fathers in dissolving a Union with non-slaveholding confederates, and seeking a confederation with slave-holding States.
Experience has proved that slaveholding States cannot be safe in subjection to non-slave-holding States.
Indeed, no people ever expect to preserve their rights and liberties unless they are in their own custody.
To plunder and oppress where plunder and oppression can be practised with impunity, seems to be the natural order of things.
The fairest portions of the world have been turned into wildernesses, and the most civilized and prosperous communities have been impoverished and ruined by anti-slavery fanaticism.
The people of the North
have not left us in doubt as to their designs and policy.
United as a section in the late Presidential election, they have elected as the exponent of their policy one who has openly declared that all the States of the United States
must be made free States or slave States.
It is true that amongst those who aided in his election, there are various shades of anti-slavery hostility.
But if African
slavery in the Southern States
be the evil their political combinations affirm it to be, the requisitions of an inexorable logic must lead them to emancipation.
If it is right to preclude or abolish slavery in a Territory, why should it be allowed to remain in the States?
The one is not at all more unconstitutional than the other, according to the decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States
And when it is considered that the Northern States
will soon have the power to make that Court what they please, and that the Constitution
never has been any barrier whatever to their exercise of power, what check can there be in the unrestrained counsels of the North
There is sympathy in association, which carries men along without principle; but when there is principle, and that principle is fortified by long-existing prejudices and feelings, association is omnipotent in party influences.
In spite of all disclaimers and professions, there can be but one end by the submission of the South
to the rule of a sectional anti-slavery Government at Washington
; and that end, directly or indirectly, must be the emancipation of the slaves of the South
The hypocrisy of thirty years--the faithlessness of their whole course from the commencement of our union with them — show that the people of the non-slaveholding North are not and cannot be safe associates of the slaveholding South
under a common government.
Not only their fanaticism, but their erroneous views of the principles of free government, render it doubtful whether, separated from the South
, they can maintain a free government among themselves.
Brute numbers with them is the great element of free government.
A majority is infallible and omnipotent.
“The right divine to rule in kings” is only transferred to their majority.
The very object of all constitutions, in free popular governments, is, to restrain the majority.
Constitutions, therefore, according to their theory, must be most unrighteous inventions, restricting liberty.
None ought to exist, but the body politic ought simply to have a politieal