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[225] Donelson at 2 o'clock A. M. on that day. The fort had surrendered, and the whole army was lost, except half of Floyd's brigade, which had crossed the river; and the head of General Johnston's columns was about reaching Nashville.

On the 6th of February, after the fall of Fort Henry, Brigadier-General Bushrod R. Johnson had arrived at Fort Donelson and assumed command; but on the 10th was relieved by his senior, Brigadier-General Gideon J. Pillow, who had been a majorgeneral during the Mexican war. On the 11th, BrigadierGen-eral S. B. Buckner came in with orders from General Floyd to withdraw his division to Cumberland City. These two officers, deeming the fort untenable for a long defence, preferred leaving a small force to hold it as long as possible, and then retire, if practicable, upon Nashville. General Pillow, who was still in command, insisted upon the retention of Buckner's division, and the transfer to the fort of Floyd's scattered forces, which that officer was still endeavoring to concentrate at Cumberland City. He applied to General Johnston, who ordered the movement on the night of the 12th. Meanwhile, Floyd, yielding to General Pillow's views, had entered Donelson on the 13th, before daylight, and assumed command, his whole force being fifteen thousand effectives.1 On the 12th General Grant appeared in front of Donelson, and, early on the 13th, commenced its investment with fifteen thousand men, increased to twenty-five thousand on the evening of the same day. Commodore Foote, with a fleet consisting of two wooden and four ironclad gunboats, made a determined attack on the 14th, but was definitively repulsed. A brilliant and successful sortie was effected the next day by the Confederates, but, not being properly sustained according to the plan decided upon, it failed of favorable results; so that, during the night between the 15th and 16th—as mentioned in General Johnston's telegram—the commanding officers, regarding the continuance of the struggle against the united

Federal land and naval forces as likely only to lead to a useless sacrifice of life, concluded to surrender. This unpleasant duty devolved upon General Buckner. About ten thousand men were surrendered; some two thousand were killed and wounded; and about two thousand escaped, with Generals Floyd and Pillow, by boats and otherwise;

1 Report of Colonel J. F. Gilmer, Chief Engineer.

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