were manned by detachments taken from Gregg
's regiment, and from both the German and the Columbia Artillery, under Colonel Lamar
, Major Warley
, and Captains Huger
, and Green
was under Brigadier-General R. G. M. Dunovant
; and the command of all its batteries had been assigned to Lieutenant-Colonel Ripley
, of the First Artillery Battalion. Captain Ransom Calhoun
was stationed at Fort Moultrie
, and Captain Hallonquist
at the ‘Enfilade’ or masked battery.
They were assisted by Lieutenants Wagner
, and Parker
. Captain Butler
was on duty at the mortar battery, east of Fort Moultrie
. Captain J. R. Hamilton
commanded his own floating battery and the Dahlgren gun. Captain Martin
was at the Mount Pleasant
mortars; Captain George S. Thomas
at Fort Johnson
; and Castle Pinckney had been placed under the charge of an officer whose name we have not been able to procure.
A few days previous to the bombardment, the general commanding had announced, in general orders, the names of the officers composing his staff.
They were Major D. R. Jones
, Captain S. D. Lee
, Captain S. Ferguson
, Lieutenant Sydney Legare
—of the Regular staff; Messrs. John L. Manning
, James Chestnut, Jr.
, William Porcher Miles, A. J. Gonzales
, and A. R. Chisolm
, and Colonels L. T. Wigfall
, of Texas
, and Roger A. Pryor
, of Virginia
—of the Volunteer
Though the opening of hostilities had, for the last two days, been almost hourly expected by officers and men of the various commands, and by the whole population of the city of Charleston
, still, so good was the tone of the troops, so confident of the result were the non-combatants, that when the last message of the commanding general
had been delivered, notifying Major Anderson
that fire would open on him in an hour's time, quiet, order, and discipline reigned throughout the city and harbor.
The peaceful stillness of the night was suddenly broken just before dawn.
From Fort Johnson
's mortar battery, at 4.30 A. M., April 12th, 1861, issued the first-and, as many thought, the toolong-deferred-signal shell of the war. It was fired, not by Mr. Edmund Ruffin
, of Virginia
, as has been erroneously believed, but by Captain George S. James
, of South Carolina
, to whom Lieutenant Stephen D. Lee
issued the order.
It sped aloft, describing its peculiar arc of fire, and, bursting over Fort Sumter
, fell, with crashing noise, in the very centre of the parade.