Chapter 1: recruiting.
At the close of the year 1862, the military situation was discouraging to the supporters of the Federal Government
We had been repulsed at Fredericksburg
and at Vicksburg
, and at tremendous cost had fought the battle of Stone River
Some sixty-five thousand troops would be discharged during the ensuing summer
Volunteering was at a standstill.
On the other hand, the Confederates
, having filled their ranks, were never better fitted for conflict.
Politically, the opposition had grown formidable, while the so-called ‘peace-faction’ was strong, and active for mediation.
In consequence of the situation, the arming of negroes, first determined upon in October, 1862, was fully adopted as a military measure; and President Lincoln
, on Jan. 1, 1863, issued the Emancipation Proclamation
In September, 1862, General Butler
began organizing the Louisiana Native Guards from free negroes.
, in the Department of the South, formed the First South Carolina from contrabands in October of the same year.
Col. James Williams
, in the summer of 1862,