at in the early months of the war, were afterwards accepted by the nation, before the war could be brought to a successful end.
is a small State, in territory and in population.
With the exception of Maine
, it lies the farthest eastward of all the States in the Union
Its capital is four hundred and fifty miles east of Washington
, and is separated from it by the States of Rhode Island
, New York, New Jersey
, and Maryland
It contains seven thousand eight hundred square miles of land, river, lakes, and sea. In 1860, it had a population of 1,231,066, engaged in farming, manufacturing, fishing, and mercantile pursuits.
Less than one-half the land is improved.
It is about 1/380 part of the whole Union, ranking the thirty-sixth in size among the forty States and Territories.
It is divided into fourteen counties, and three hundred and thirty-five cities and towns.
Its governor, lieutenant-governor
, eight councillors, forty senators, and two hundred and forty representatives, are elected every year, in the month of November, by the free suffrage of the qualified voters.
The executive department of the Government
is vested in the governor and Executive Council,—the governor, however, being the supreme executive magistrate, whose title is, His Excellency;
the legislative, in a Senate and House of Representatives, each having a negative upon the other, and known and designated as the General Court.
The judicial department is composed of different courts, the judges of which are appointed by the governor, and hold their offices during good behavior, and can only be removed upon the address of both houses of the Legislature, or by the abolishment of the court; this to ‘the end, that it may be a government of laws, and not of men.’
In the election for governor, in 1860, there were four candidates and four political parties.
John A. Andrew
, of Boston
, was the candidate of the Republicans; Erasmus D. Beach
, of Springfield
, of the Douglas wing of the Democrats; Amos A. Lawrence
, of Boston
, of the conservative party; and Benjamin F. Butler
, of Lowell
, of the Breckenridge wing of the Democratic