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[593] of Washington extends on the Virginia side from ‘Chain Bridge’ to ‘Long Bridge’ at Washington, which are connected with breastworks and rifle-pits, the entire distance. A short way from Chain Bridge is Fort Ethan Allen, where we stopped: this fort is very large, and is garrisoned by five companies of Massachusetts unattached heavy artillery. Here we stayed nearly an hour, and then passed on to Forts Whipple, Cass, Tillinghast, Smith, and Albany, each of which is garrisoned by our unattached heavy artillery companies. We arrived at Washington about dark, having passed a most pleasant and profitable day. The country through which I had passed was high and rolling, intersected at short intervals with ravines; the forts all have commanding positions. Two years and a half ago, I passed over a great part of this tract, with the late lamented Colonel Cass, of the Ninth Massachusetts; it was then thickly wooded, and it was difficult to make your way through it on horseback: now good carriage roads intersect it, and travelling in a carriage is not difficult. The woods have been felled and used for making abatis and corduroy roads, and to light up campfires.

After arriving at my hotel, I had the honor of an introduction to Brigadier-General Custar, of General Sheridan's army. He had arrived in Washington that afternoon from the Shenandoah Valley, having in custody twelve battle-flags, which had been captured from the enemy the Wednesday preceding; he was to present them the next day to the Secretary of War, and he was pleased to give me an invitation to be present. From him I first learned that Colonel Lowell, of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry, had been killed, gallantly leading his regiment in the front of battle. This news saddened my heart. Colonel Lowell was my beau ideal of an officer and a gentleman; I had seen much of him while he was in Massachusetts raising and organizing his regiment, and had become warmly attached to him; he was one of our best and bravest. General Custar informed me that Colonel Lowell was severely wounded in the early part of the engagement, and was advised to retire to the rear; he thought, however, he could stand the fatigues of the day, and stoutly held to his command; a few hours afterwards he fell, mortally wounded. It was pleasant to listen to the words of praise which General Custar bestowed upon his fallen comrade.

Sunday, Oct. 23.—I remained in my room, trying to rid myself of a severe cold which I had taken the day before in my visit to the fortifications. A number of friends called during the day, among whom was Governor Corwin, of Ohio, with whom I agreed to spend the next evening. He has recently returned from Mexico; his


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