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[341] garrison of Columbus, Kentucky, to surrender, but received for reply from Colonel Lawrence Thirty-fourth New Jersey volunteers, that, being placed there by his Government, with adequate force to hold his post and repel all enemies from it, surrender was out of the question.

On the morning of the same day, Forrest attacked Fort Pillow, Tennessee, garrisoned by a detachment of Tennessee cavalry and the First regiment Alabama colored troops, commanded by Major Booth. The garrison fought bravely until about three o'clock in the afternoon, when the enemy carried the works by assault, and, after our men threw down their arms, proceeded to an inhuman and merciless massacre of the garrison.

On the fourteenth, General Buford, having failed at Columbus, appeared before Paducah, but was again driven off.

Guerrillas and raiders, seemingly emboldened by Forrest's operations, were also very active in Kentucky. The most noted of these was Morgan. With a force of from two to three thousand cavalry, he entered the State through Pound Gap in the latter part of May. On the eleventh of June he attacked and captured Cynthiana, with its entire garrison. On the twelfth he was overtaken by General Burbridge, and completely routed with heavy loss, and was finally driven out of the State. This notorious guerrilla was afterward surprised and killed near Greenville, Tennessee, and his command captured and dispersed by General Gillem.

In the absence of official reports at the commencement of the Red river expedition, except so far as relates to the movements of the troops sent by General Sherman under A. J. Smith, I am unable to give the date of its starting. The troops under General Smith, comprising two divisions of the Sixteenth and a detachment of the Seventeenth Army Corps, left Vicksburg on the tenth of March and reached the designated point on Red river one day earlier than that appointed by General Banks. The rebel forces at Fort De Russey, thinking to defeat him, left the fort on the fourteenth to give him battle in the open field; but, while occupying the enemy with skirmishing and demonstrations, Smith pushed forward to Fort De Russey, which had been left with a weak garrison, and captured it with its garrison — about three hundred and fifty men, eleven pieces of artillery, and many small arms. Our loss was but slight. On the fifteenth he pushed forward to Alexandria, which place he reached on the eighteenth. On the twenty-first he had an engagement with the enemy at Henderson Hill, in which he defeated him, capturing two hundred and ten prisoners and four pieces of artillery.

On the twenty-eighth he again attacked and defeated the enemy under the rebel General Taylor, at Cane river. By the twenty-sixth General Banks had assembled his whole army at Alexandria, and pushed forward to Grand Ecore. On the morning of April sixth he moved from Grand Ecore. On the afternoon of the seventh his advance engaged the enemy near Pleasant Hill and drove him from the field. On the same afternoon the enemy made a stand eight miles beyond Pleasant Hill, but was again compelled to retreat. On the eighth, at Sabine Cross-roads and Peach Hill, the enemy attacked and defeated his advance, capturing nineteen pieces of artillery and an immense amount of transportation and stores. During the night General Banks fell back to Pleasant Hill, where another battle was fought on the ninth, and the enemy repulsed with great loss. During the night General Banks continued his retrogade movement to Grand Ecore, and thence to Alexandria, which he reached on the twenty-seventh of April. Here a serious difficulty arose in getting Admiral Porter's fleet, which accompanied the expedition, over the rapids, the water having fallen so much since they passed up as to prevent their return. At the suggestion of Colonel (now Brigadier-General) Bailey, and under his superintendence, wing-dams were constructed, by which the channel was contracted so that the fleet passed down the rapids in safety.

The army evacuted Alexandria on the fourteenth of May, after considerable skirmishing with the enemy's advance, and reached Morganzia and Point Coupee near the end of the month. The disastrous termination of this expedition, and the lateness of the season, rendered impracticable the carrying out of my plan of a movement in force sufficient to ensure the capture of Mobile.

On the twenty-third of March, Major-General Steele left Little Rock with the Seventh Army Corps to cooperate with General Banks' expedition on Red river, and reached Arkadelphia on the twenty-eighth. On the sixteenth of April, after driving the enemy before him, he was joined, near Elkin's Ferry, in Washita county, by General Thayer, who had marched from Fort Smith. After several severe skirmishes, in which the enemy was defeated, General Steele reached Camden, which he occupied about the middle of April.

On learning the defeat and consequent retreat of General Banks on Red river, and the loss of one of his own trains at Marks' mill, in Dallas county, General Steele determined to fall back to the Arkansas river. He left Camden on the twenty-sixth of April, and reached Little Rock on the second of May. On the thirtieth of April, the enemy attacked him while crossing Saline river at Jenkins' ferry, but was repulsed with considerable loss. Our loss was about six hundred in killed, wounded, and prisoners.

Major-General Canby, who had been assigned to the command of the “Military division of the West Mississippi,” was therefore directed to send the Nineteenth Army Corps to join the armies operating against Richmond, and to limit the remainder of his command to such operations as might be necessary to hold the positions and lines of communications he then occupied.

Before starting General A. J. Smith's troops


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