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[344] In 1870 the number of persons in America who could not read was reported as more than four millions five hundred thousand; of those who could not write more than five million six hundred thousand souls.

Such facts are not explained by the theory of a great rush of illiterates from Europe or even from Asia.

Some illiterates come from Liverpool, Hamburg, and Hong-Kong, no doubt, but they are not enough to darken the tables of illiteracy very much. The German immigrants, as a rule, can read and write. The Mongol immigrants, as a rule, can read and write. I have never seen a male Chinese who could not read, and very few who could not write — in their own tongue. Out of sixty-three thousand Chinese reported in the census, six thousand are returned as illiterate, but in many towns, probably in most towns, illiteracy was taken by the census marshals to mean inability to read and write English--a rule under which Victor Hugo and Father Secchi would be classed as illiterate. Of course the poorer class of Irish help to swell the list. Pat is the “ bad lot” of American statists; for with

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