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[40] see. The flats on each side of the river are much alike, and about the same width as those at Ilion and Frankfort. A road runs along the base of the hills toward Richmond, called the “Bowling Green Turnpike.” Along this road and on the high ground above, could be seen masses of the enemy moving along. Their guns in battery on the heights could be seen to be protected by earthworks and on the fort, or redoubt, back of the city a signal station was located, and the wigwagging of the white flag with a square black center was continuous.

In reorganizing the Army Burnside had assigned Major General Sumner to the command of the Right Grand Division, Major General Hooker to command the Central Grand Division, and Major General Franklin to command the Left Grand Division. These Grand Divisions consisted each of two Corps. The Right of the Second and Ninth Corps commanded respectively by Major General Couch and Major General Wilcox. The Center of the Fifth and Third Corps commanded by Major Generals Butterfield and Stoneman. The Left of the First and Sixth Corps commanded by Major Generals Reynolds and W. F. Smith. In the Battle of Fredericksburg the position of these Grand divisions was, after crossing the river, in the order of their names. The Right and Central Divisions crossed the river directly opposite the city on pontoon bridges, which they had difficulty in building because of the sharpshooters concealed in the houses along the bank of the river. They were finally dislodged by troops ferried across in pontoons, and the two bridges were completed on which the Right and Central Grand Divisions crossed. The Left Grand Division crossed a mile and a half below the city at the mouth of a stream called Deep Run, with little difficulty, and the

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