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[41] place was afterwards known as “Franklin's crossing,” and is so designated in all future references to it. The First Corps crossed before the Sixth, and the most vivid recollection the writer has of that crossing, is the fact that the surface of the bridge was carpeted with playing cards, and the surface of the river was almost covered with cards that had been thrown away by those who had crossed on the bridges above. It was evident to all that a bloody battle was to be fought and few men wanted to go to certain death with gambling devices in their pockets. Since that time the writer has never doubted the essential wickedness of gambling. With death as the chief arbitrator there were no valid arguments in its favor. In the years since that day he has seen nothing to change his views on the subject.

After crossing the river the First Corps bore off to the left and the Sixth advanced over the level plain next the river and entered the deep broad cut made by Deep Run, and followed it to within gunshot of the foot of the hills. Here it remained-or our part of it did-while the battle raged on the right and left, with disastrous results to the Union forces. The dreadful slaughter on the right in the effort to carry the Stone Wall, the repulse of Franklin's feeble effort on the left, and the repulse of Hooker's half-hearted attack on the heights behind the city, have been often described and much controversy as to the responsibility for the failure has resulted. The fact that General Mead's division of the First Corps broke through the line of the enemy's defenses, and if properly supported could have held the ground taken, throws no little responsibility upon General Franklin who tried to excuse himself behind the plea, that his orders were not to press the attack to an issue, but to feel of, and test the forces of the

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