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[226] compassion on our poverty, caused the quartermaster general, the commissary general, and the surgeon general to honor our requisitions for the needed supplies of every sort which each could furnish. This relief enabled benevolent societies to do more for the schools. The machinery was vast. The majority of the whites in the South were at first very unfriendly to the Freedmen's Bureau, and the freed people for the most part ignorant, and so not easy to comprehend their new relation. Nothing then became more essential than for the commissioner to clearly set forth and reiterate as I did the principles that would govern him and his subordinates. Orders and instructions were published so that all officials concerned did read, ponder, and, acting in unison, carry them into execution; and surely they were so expressed that all honest opponents did know the sincerity of my course.

From the start I felt sure that the relief offered by the Bureau to refugees and freedmen through the different channels, being abnormal to our system of government, would be but temporary. The first law, as we have seen, extended the Bureau only till one year after the war, and even if our law makers should, from pressing necessities during the period of reconstruction, lengthen its life, still it was in every way most desirable to do away with crutches as soon as the patient was able to walk alone. But one source of relief was imperative, and friends of freedmen believed that in some form or by some channel it would be made permanent. It was the school. While we were laboring hard to reduce the number of freedmen's courts, hospitals, asylums, and eleemosynary features generally, we extended the school operations; so that before long the schools, which were at first in my adjutant

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