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[255] courts were often used by Bureau officials with a reasonable measure of justice.

Following Alabama, General Tillson tried the civil magistrates of Georgia under similar directions and restriction as in Alabama. He was reassured by a prompt cooperation and pleased with the action everywhere taken. He felt that if we trusted the Southern white people more, they would be disposed to do right.

For South Carolina General Meade, the Military Division commander, forestalling action by the Bureau, had arranged with the provisional governor for that State that all freedmen's cases should be brought before his provost courts. This was well enough generally for immediate justice, but not so well for the ultimate, when the military would have to be withdrawn.

In all the other States the same course was pursued with desirable fruitage. In some counties after their withdrawal the Bureau courts had to be reestablished to prevent open revolt by negroes against evident legal persecution in State courts.

To avoid, as much as we could, too much new Bureau legislation, our officers secured by their influence the extension as far as possible of the State laws to the freedmen, i. e., laws made for the whites. It was always the practical method — the best way-to make use of time-honored rules established by wise legislation for other people. Those laws applicable to marriage and divorce, to apprenticeship of orphan minors, to paupers and to vagrancy were especially available. Marriages of the freedmen were carefully registered by the Bureau in every State; many orphans were apprenticed to people of good character, under humane and liberal regulations; and the district, parish, county, or town was for the most part gradually

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