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[290] General Fisk, in September, was relieved by General J. R. Lewis, he took occasion by a circular, widely published, to transfer all cases to the civil officers elected by the people, to call their attention afresh to the United States laws involved, and to entreat them to lay aside all feelings of prejudice, in order that the State laws might be administered in such a manner as not to compel a return to military courts. We all believed then that greater security for the life and property of the freed people existed in Tennessee than in any other of the late Confederate States.

Kentucky had meanwhile been full of trouble. The “regulators” had been for some time committing horrible outrages in the southeastern districts. Old laws and old customs like flogging prevailed in many counties. The department commander, General Jeff. C. Davis, who also came to be the assistant commissioner for Kentucky, had been previously reported as hostile to negroes, so that I was fearful that matters there might grow worse. But I was greatly mistaken. Davis said: “The laws shall be executed at whatever cost.” He settled difficulties between the negroes and white men with satisfaction to both, and punished the lawless with such promptitude that even the bloody and much-feared “regulators” were obliged, where he could reach their haunts, to suspend their base work of terrorism which they had undertaken among the freedmen and their teachers.

General J. W. Sprague, most manly and fearless of men, in October of 1866 was no longer sanguine for Arkansas in the line of justice. The legislature did not grant the negroes their rights. He feared to give cases to State officers on account of their manifest prejudice and unfairness. He could not, he confessed,

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