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[316] strength, saved a Republic, broke the chains of four millions of slaves, and inaugurated genuine, universal, unqualified liberty.

Extracts from address delivered at Springfield, Mass., February 19, 1866.

On February 21st, at a meeting in the interest of my work held at the Cooper Institute, New York, the venerable Dr. Ferris, president of the New York University, Horace Greeley, and many other men of social and political prominence were present. The meeting was opened with prayer by the Rev. Dr. Hiscock, and then I was introduced to the large audience. After brief comparisons and contrasts drawn between Russian serfdom and American slavery, I went on to discuss the attitude of the Southern white people toward negroes now free. There was, I claimed, on their part a positive aversion to giving freedom and rights of citizenship to the negro. A large proportion of the former slaveholders looked upon the reasonings of Northern men as vagaries and did not hesitate to express the conviction that the emancipation was a judgment of God. It was not strange that the greater part were overwhelmed and chagrined by the loss they had met in the abolition of slavery. But there were notable exceptions-men who took a comprehensive view of things, and believed that the South would ultimately thrive better than ever before through the genius of free labor. Education was urged as the true relief. Its thorough practicability was shown by the liveliest examples of daily occurrence among the colored youth. Industrial education above all was urged.

I had hardly ceased speaking when Mr. Greeley, wearing his usual light gray coat, was loudly demanded. He responded, and among other things, said: “Should the Government cease, through its agents, to make efforts for the education and upholding of the ”

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