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[344] pride to take care of their own poor. This of itself was a great boon to the assistant commissioner.

General W. P. Carlin had become district commander and assistant commissioner for Tennessee. His account of the conduct of employers after the freedmen had cast their first ballot, which happened this year, was not very reassuring. They drove away and persecuted laborers who had voted for candidates that the planters did not approve. From June to October there were recorded at his headquarters 25 murders, 35 assaults with intent to kill, 83 cases of assault and battery, 4 of rape, and 4 of arson; all these were perpetrated against the freed people of Tennessee. Military courts had been relaxed and the civil law was again in full control. But not one murderer anywhere in the State had been punished, and the majority of other criminals had escaped every penalty of the law; while the few brought to trial had been very leniently dealt with. A large number of additional outrages were committed here and there which were not officially reported to our agents, and so were never properly recorded.

Near the close of 1867 in Tennessee the status of schools was better than that of justice, there being an enrollment of 9,451 pupils. The greater part were carried on by the Northern societies, but the freedmen, out of their small possessions, had in one month contributed nearly $2,000. The Tennessee legislature had, in addition to white schools, provided for colored schools, putting one in any district or town where there were upward of 25 scholars, and also had established a permanent tax of 10 mills upon taxable property for school support. Just as soon in 1868 as this fund should become available, the State superintendent

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