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[370] and as they prosper and acquire property, they will assume a larger share of the burden, either by voluntary contributions or by the payment of taxes for the support of schools.

The poverty of the freed people has been in some slight degree relieved by the payment of bounties and other moneys due from the Government to soldiers, sailors, and marines. These payments have been made through us in accordance with law.

So far as I have had authority and power I have endeavored to protect the freedmen from all kinds of abuse and injustice to which they were exposed in a region for a time destitute of civil government, and among a people bitterly hostile to their emancipation . .

In all important cases where the civil courts existed they were first resorted to; but when such courts would not admit the testimony of negroes nor treat them as equals before the law with whites, appeal was made to military tribunals or under the Civil Rights bill to the United States courts. ....

One assistant commissioner reports three thousand four hundred and five (3,405) cases adjudicated in a single quarter, which, taken as a fair exponent of the business, gives more than one hundred thousand (100,--000) complaints heard and acted upon by Bureau officers in a single year. The reports of murders, assaults, and outrages of every description were so numerous, and so full of horrible details, that at times one was inclined to believe the whole white population engaged in a war of extermination against the blacks. But careful investigation has proved that the worst outrages were generally committed by small bands of lawless men, organized under various names, whose

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