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Colonel Stannard at Harper's Ferry

General T. S. Peck
Monday morning, September 15, 1862, Colonel Dixon S. Miles was commanding our forces at Harper's Ferry. He was obliged to surrender. At the time the white flag went up Colonel George J. Stannard with his regiment, the Ninth Vermont, was on Bolivar Heights. Seeing the flag, Stannard was deeply chagrined and tried for two hours to get back and break through the cordon of hostile troops formed around our unfortunate garrison. In his last effort he moved down to the lower road, which runs parallel to the Shenandoah River, and was headed for the pontoon bridge that crosses the Potomac from the village of Harper's Ferry. At the foot of this rocky road Stannard called for forty volunteers as a “forlorn hope.” He put himself at its head and started, expecting the regiment to follow, rapidly toward the bridge. But halfway down he met the head of A. P. Hill's corps. Instantly we saw two of Hill's aids confronting Colonel Stannard. Though firm, they were gentle in their manner and informed the colonel that the garrison had surrendered, and insisted that he take his regiment at once to the camping ground and stack arms. This occurred two hours after the other troops [581] had given up. Being near him, I looked up and saw that Stannard's face was covered with tears, and I was sure that he was still meditating some way to keep his regiment from marching back to that hill. He began to retire, but his movements were slow and evidently reluctant. One Confederate officer told Stannard that if he did not hasten his march they would not dilly-dally with him longer, but would fire grape and canister into the command.

While the regiment was ascending the rocky road the men were breaking up their muskets and the drummers throwing their drums into the deep gorge below; officers were also breaking their swords and colorbearers destroying their flags.

When at last the regiment arrived we were ordered to stack arms; the Confederates laughed at our attempts, and while they were evidently angry to see the muskets so injured they cheered Colonel Stannard and his soldiers for their bravery.

The next step was for Colonel Stannard to sign the parole for all his men not to take up arms again until regularly exchanged. The colonel on the spot declined to do this, stating that he would give his own parole, but could not be responsible for the men in his regiment. He created delay by one contrivance and another till late in the afternoon, hoping that relief would come from McClellan.

At last General Hill told Stannard that if he did not sign at once the men of his regiment would be marched to Richmond and held as prisoners of war. After that threat Colonel Stannard signed the parole.


General Stannard at Fort Harrison

General T. S. Peck
On September 29, 1864, General Stannard assaulted and took Fort Harrison with his division. The fort was located on the north side of the James River, near Chapin's Bluff, four miles from Richmond. At noon on September 30th, General Lee tried to recapture Fort Harrison; his attacking column, some 7,000 strong, was formed in three successive lines. The Confederates made three different attacks within an hour, and did not withdraw till after at least 2,000 were killed and wounded. Those who survived from the first Confederate line came into Fort Harrison, and one of the first arrivals was the colonel of an Alabama regiment, who, with blood streaming down his face, looked up at General Stannard and said: “You had better come out of this fort, for General Lee himself is over there” (pointing to the Confederate works), “and he says he will retake this fort” (Harrison) “if it takes half of his army.” Stannard's reply was: “I shall be happy to see General Lee whenever he chooses to call.”

During this short but terrific engagement Stannard stood, walked, or ran around the top of the parapet, hat in one hand and sword in the other, encouraging by voice and motions the men of liis division. He was seen not only by men of the Union army, not far away, but by the Confederates.

Within Fort Harrison were log cabins used during their occupation by the Confederates as quarters. These cabins took fire, and between the excessive heat of the burning buildings and the severe fighting the men of Stannard's division were in a most hazardous [583] position. There was great danger of their being prevented in their defense by the hot fire from the buildings. The wounded and hospital men, however, tore down the cabins and extinguished the fires.

At the close of the engagement proper the sharpshooters on both sides for a time continued their carnival; then it was that General Stannard was shot in his right arm, which was afterwards amputated. His heroic gallantry and superb fighting enabled the Union troops to hold this most important fortification, and for that action he received the brevet of Major General of Volunteers.

Stannard, with the Second Vermont Brigade, at Gettysburg, as everybody knows, did heroic work and helped largely to change a doubtful battle into victory. He was a hard fighter and a manly man, with noblest instincts.

General Hooker's Congratulatory order: General orders, no. 47.

Headquarters Army of the Potomac, Camp near Falmouth, Virginia, April 30, 1863.
It is with heartfelt satisfaction the Commanding General announces to the Army that the operations of the last three days have determined that our enemy must either ingloriously fly, or come out from behind his defenses and give us battle on our own ground, where certain destruction awaits him.

The operations of the Fifth, Eleventh, and Twelfth Corps have been a succession of splendid achievements. By command of Major General Hooker:

S. Williams, Assistant Adjutant General.


Acts of Congress establishing the freedmen's Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That there is hereby established in the War Department, to continue during the present war of rebellion, and for one year thereafter, a Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, to which shall be committed, as hereinafter provided, the supervision and management of all abandoned lands, and the control of all subjects relating to refugees and freedmen from rebel States, or from any district of country within the territory embraced in the operations of the army, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the head of the bureau and approved by the President. The said bureau shall be under the management and control of a Commissioner to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

Act approved March 3, 1865.

Sec. 2

And be it further enacted, That where accounts are rendered for expenditures for refugees or freedmen under the approval and sanction of the proper officers, and which shall have been proper and necessary, but cannot be settled for want of specific appropriations, the same may be paid out of the fund for the relief of refugees and freedmen, on the approval of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees and Freedmen.

Act approved June 15, 1866.

Sec. 2

And be it further enacted, That the supervision and care of said bureau shall extend to all loyal refugees and freedmen, so far as the same shall be [585] necessary to enable them as speedily as practicable to become self-supporting citizens of the United States, and to aid them in making the freedom conferred by proclamation of the commander-in-chief, by emancipation under the laws of States, and by constitutional amendment, available and beneficial to the public.

Sec. 12

And be it further enacted, That the Commissioner shall have power to seize, hold, use, lease, or sell all buildings and tenements, and any lands appertaining to the same, or otherwise, formerly held under color of title by the late so-called Confederate States, and not heretofore disposed of by the United States, and any buildings or lands held in trust for the same by any person or persons, and to use the same or appropriate the proceeds derived therefrom to the education of the freed people; and whenever the bureau shall cease to exist, such of said so-called Confederate States as shall have made provision for the education of their citizens, without distinction of color, shall receive the sum remaining unexpended of such sales or rentals, which shall be distributed among said States for educational purposes in proportion to their population.

Sec. 13

And be it further enacted, That the Commissioner of this bureau shall at all times cooperate with private benevolent associations of citizens in aid of freedmen, and with agents and teachers duly accredited and appointed by them, and shall hire or provide by lease buildings for purposes of education whenever such association shall, without cost to the government, provide suitable teachers and means of instruction; and he shall furnish such protection as may be required for the safe conduct of such schools.

Act of July 16, 1866.


Sec. 3

And be it further enacted, That unexpended balances in the hands of the Commissioner, not required otherwise for the due execution of the law, may be, in the discretion of the Commissioner, applied for the education of freedmen and refugees, subject to the provisions of laws applicable thereto.

Act of June 24, 1868.

Officers and directors of Lincoln Memorial University

Acknowledgment is made to the following list of officers and directors for their hearty cooperation in the work of the Lincoln Memorial University at Cumberland Gap, Tenn.:

Board of directors

William L. Stooksbury, Ph.D., President.

Col. Robert F. Patterson, Vice-President, Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Hon. Darwin R. James, Treasurer, New York.

Chas. F. Eager, Secretary and Asst. Treas., Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

Eugene P. Fairchild, Esq., Financial Sec'y, Rutherford, N. J.

REv. Fred. Burt Avery, D. D., Cleveland, Ohio.

Col. E. H. Haskell, Boston, Mass.

Benjamin H. Herbert, Chicago, Ill.

John F. Spence, Ll.D., Knoxville, Tenn.

Edgar O. Achorn, Esq., Boston, Mass.

A. Lincoln Seligman, New York.

MacAULAYulay Arthur, M. D., Middlesboro, Ky. [587]

W. H. Fulkerson, Jerseyville, 111.

Herman Y. Hughes, Esq., Tazewell, Tenn.

Hon. Henry R. Gibson, Knoxville, Tenn.

Rev. Isaac S. Anderson, Rose Hill, Va.

Franklin E. Nettleton, Esq., Scranton, Pa.

B. F. Young, M. D., Knoxville, Tenn.

Millard F. Overton, Cumberland Gap, Tenn.

New York Advisory committee

Rev. W. S. Richardson,

Lawrence W. Sanders.

New York Finance committee (investment of Endowment.)

Hon. D. R. James,

Hon. Stewart L. Woodford,

J. H. Washburn.

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