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[124] man who is to enter upon manufacturing or mining or railroad business to begin himself at the foundation, work with the laborers, dine from a tin pail, and be paid wages like the rest. Among the owners of mines and factories the greater number have begun on the tin-pail level. To all these the word “gentleman” means something very different from what it means in England. It means good manners and good education, whether the owner dates back to a cattle-steamer or otherwise. This might be called, in a certain way, the Christian meaning of the word-inasmuch as the founder of this religion was a carpenter's son, and, as the Church has generally held, worked at his father's trade in early youth. Yet he was called by the poet Dekker, in a line which is very likely to prove immortal-

The first true gentleman that ever breathed.

There are two great defects in the working of the English theory that a gentleman must never, under any circumstances, have worked with his hands. The first is that it handicaps every one who has so worked, and makes it harder for him, even in the American sense, to be a gentleman. People are very apt to be

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