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The other defect of the English standard is that it perpetuates, even inside those who rank as gentlemen, a permanent feudalism, a wholly artificial standard of social subordination. This lasts even to the present time. In the autobiography of Anthony Trollope there is an especial chapter on the question, “How a literary man should treat his social superiors” --a chapter which is, to an American literary man, first ludicrous and then pathetic. Walter Besant in his Fifty Years Ago enumerated the list of eminent authors and scientists of the Victorian period, and pointed with what seemed like pride to the fact that they had had nothing to do with the court of Victoria. Now that he has been knighted, he doubtless acquiesces with resignation. But the crowning illustration of the curious attitude given by belated feudalism to the author is to be found in the lately published letters of Sir Walter Scott. They are delightful in all respects but one--the absolute self-subordination, the personal prostration, with which he writes to every titled nonentity about him. Men younger than himself, now utterly forgotten by the world at large, were treated by this leading Scotch intellect of his day as if they conferred honor by letting him write to

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