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[57] 1845; but the ordinance in relation to common sewers, establishing a sewer system, was not passed until 1852. It was in 1865—nineteen years after the acceptance of the charter— that the city assumed the function of supplying drinking-water to its inhabitants.

The new city of 1846 had no street-cleaning nor garbage-removal service. Its arrangements for the prevention of epidemic diseases were crude and inadequate. There were few if any regulations of house-building and occupancy. Public parks were scarcely dreamed of. The municipal burial grounds were forbidding in appearance and insufficient in size. The old townhouse was wholly inadequate for municipal uses. There was no public library; no engineering department; no municipal ambulance for the injured; and no free text-books for the youth. And yet the property of Cambridge in 1846 was taxed at the rate of $5 on $1000. It might, indeed, be a natural question to ask why this comparatively high rate was necessary, and for what purposes the young city needed the revenue thus raised. As an answer to this, and also as an indication of what manner and amount of service the municipal government of 1846 afforded, the following table of the expenses of the town and city from March 1, 1846, to March 1, 1847, is given:—

Almshouse and roads$11,035.68
Instruction of schools13,089.05
Repairs, etc., of schoolhouses1,865.26
Burial grounds108.38
Interest and bank discounts1,376.00
Poll tax to enginemen177.00
Bell-ringing135.00
Repairs of bridges1,493.23
Salaries of city officers1,900.00
Police and watch2,017.71
Fire department2,751.61
Reservoirs and drains13.71
Incidental expenses4,685.93
Fuel for schools30.12
Board of health46.66
——–
$40,725.34

If the population of Cambridge in its first charter year is estimated at 13,000, the amount expended per inhabitant by the municipality for all the service rendered was $3.13. By reference

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