That is the tendency of our day. You see it everywhere.
We give to wards, to towns, and to small districts unlimited control of their own affairs.
In the well-educated, sparsely-populated, comparatively poor districts of Massachusetts
, it succeeds.
Education and virtue supply the place of force and compulsion.
We have tried the-same policy with the city.
We have given to it the exclusive execution of the State
It was not so forty years ago; the city was then a town in the county of Suffolk
; the State
sent its own sheriff and its own deputy sheriffs, appointed by itself, not by vote, to execute its laws.
You know the city has two codes,--its own by-laws, and also the laws of the State
Its own by-laws were always executed by itself.
Half a century ago, the State
laws were executed by State officials.
We have gradually tended toward giving to the city the whole control of the State
laws also; and to-day (a fact, probably, of which not one in ten in this audience is aware), the police of Boston
are engaged three quarters of their time, and more, in the execution, not of city laws, but of State laws, of laws which, half a century ago, would have largely been in the hands of the sheriff and his deputies, appointed by the State
We have gone thus far.
Now, like all other grants, the State
may resume this.
The reason why she should resume it is, because the city goes to the state-house, year by year, and says:
We cannot execute your laws.
If you incorporate a company to build a railroad, after the assigned time, if the road is not finished, the State
resumes the franchise.
The State granted to the city of Boston
the right to execute her laws; they are not executed, and the city proclaims, by the lips of her own officers, that she cannot execute them.
Therefore, the Temperance