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[214] ineffectual. In the first number of the Quarterly Journal of Economics its enlightened Paris correspondent, Arthur Mangin, says that in France “the development of industrial labor and the great works undertaken by the State and by .cities have brought about a steady emigration of peasants to the cities, and a rise in agricultural wages, which in some regions is from 200 to 300 per cent.” 1 Even in Russia, the newspapers tell us, anxiety is felt at the tendency of the former serfs to abandon their lands, and congregate around larger employers of labor or else in cities.

But the true solution of the matter appears to lie in a direction where Mr. Allen, perhaps from having made too rapid a trip through “the States,” has failed to find it. In the older parts of the American Union, side by side with the abandonment of the rural regions as the sole or permanent residence, has come up an enormous increase of those who are, so to speak, double residents of city and country — the one in the winter, the other in the summer. In the mild winters of England, where there is not a month in the year in which some flower does not bloom out-of-doors, and hardly one in which some bird does not build its nest, this distinction is less sharp; and Americans are always surprised to find

1 Quarterly Journal of Economics, p. 98.

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