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[232] ‘appropriately located at the seat of the National1 Government,’ indicated on the left side by the Capitol in the distance, ‘with the American flag (on which is conspicuous the word liberty) floating on the breeze,’ and a whipping-post in front at which a bound slave is being flogged. On the right and in the immediate foreground is a group in which a single beast answers to the sign ‘Horse Market,’ and to the placard on the auctioneer's pulpit, ‘Slaves, horses and other cattle to be sold at 12 o'c.,’ while a sorrowing family of slaves about to be separated, ‘a purchaser examining a negro as a butcher would an ox,’ and sundry bidders, complete the picture —or all but complete it, for ‘down in the dust our Indian Treaties are seen.’ This design has every appearance of having originated with the editor, whose sense of pictorial effect was ever very keen.2 Re-drawn and elaborated in after years to meet the expansion of the paper, it remained at the head, as Mr. Garrison remained at the helm, until slavery and the Liberator were no more. ‘I have heard,’ wrote a resident of Georgia, ‘many 3 comments upon your paper by the slaveholders who have seen it. Your engraving in the title is galling to them, and often elicits a deep and bitter curse.’ They saw in it not what it was meant to be, an appeal to the Northern conscience, but an instigation to servile insurrection. ‘For what purpose,’ asked Senator Benton in 18354 of a similar issue ‘from the abolition mint,’ ‘could such a picture be intended unless to inflame the passions of slaves?’—as if it could sink deeper into their consciousness than the lash itself!5 And in this latter year Mr. Calhoun's unsuccessful bill to guard the South from anti-slavery propagandism made it a penal offence for

1 Lib. 1.67.

2 The newspapers of the day were full of deprecation of it. His more cautious friends counselled him to suppress it. Mr. Sewall ‘very kindly offered to pay for the whole of it if I would have plain type instead of it’ (Ms. stenographic report of speech at the 20th anniversary of the Liberator).

3 Lib. 1.178.

4 30 Years' View, 1.577.

5 Compare J. G. Birney's letter to the Alabama Vigilance Committee (Lib. 6.12).

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