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[299] the theological seminary, was to reconcile the people to the permanent degradation and slavery of the negro race. The church had its negro pew, and caste was as strictly enforced between the African and European complexions as it ever was between Pariah and Brahmin. Biblical scholars justified the slavery of Ham's descendants from the Bible. And, what was worst of all, the humanity and philanthropy which could not otherwise be disposed of, was ingeniously seduced into an African Colonization Society, whereby all slaves who had grown seditious and troublesome to their masters could be transplanted on the pestiferous African Coast. That this wretched and seemingly transparent humbug could have deluded anybody, must now seem past belief: but I must with shame confess the fact that I for one was deluded by it. And that fact would put me in doubt of my own sanity at the time if I did not know that high statesmen, presidents of colleges, able editors, and that most undoubted of firm philanthropists, Gerrit Smith, shared the same delusion. Bible and missionary societies fellowshipped that mean and scurvy device of the kidnapper, in their holy work. It was spoken of as the most glorious of Christian enterprises, had a monthly magazine devoted to itself, and taxed about every pulpit in the land for an annual sermon in its favor.

It was early in 1832, I think, that Mr. Garrison struck the greatest blow of his life—or any man's life—by publishing in a thick pamphlet, with all the emphasis that a printer knows how to give with types, his “Thoughts on Colonization.” His Liberator editorials and this tremendous pamphlet at once struck the thinking minds of the country with wonderment and awe. Old politicians of both parties bit their lips, if they did not gnash their teeth, and, in the absence of any other defence, invoked the mob. It was in vain. The fire was kindled. When such men as the Tappans, Alvan Stewart, Gerrit Smith, General Fessenden, Theodore D. Weld, N. P. Rogers, President Storrs, Beriah Green, William Goodell, Joshua Leavitt, Amos A. Phelps, dropped the Colonization Society,1 a moral victory

1 Not all those mentioned by Mr. Wright waited for the publication of the Thoughts to discontinue their support of the Society. See, for Arthur Tappan, ante, p. 261, and particularly Lib. 3.55, where Mr. Tappan, after stating that the first thing which shook his ‘confidence in the Society was the fact that ardent spirits were allowed to be sold at the colony’ (compare Niles' Register, 47.73), goes on to acknowledge the influence of ‘the arguments of that most distinguished and fearless philanthropist, W. L. Garrison, in the Liberator,’ in convincing him of the single motive of the Society—‘to get rid of the free colored people.’ Immediately on receiving the Thoughts he wrote to the author (Ms. June 30. 1832): ‘I have read your pamphlet with much satisfaction. . . . I wish it could be extensively read, but it will take a long time to get into circulation through the book-stores. If you will circulate 90 copies and send me 10, I will pay for the 100, and you may draw on me for the amount. You will send the 90 to whomsoever you think best. A part of them will be [well] placed in the hands of presidents and professors of colleges and seminaries, and in the reading-rooms of those institutions.’ On the other hand, Gerrit Smith's change was sudden, and not till 1835. (See, in Frothingham's “Life,” pp. 162-170, and Lib. 6.23, 26.) The list, too, would bear extension. For example, the Thoughts determined the life-work of the Rev. James Miller McKim, of Pennsylvania, and secured in him one of the most efficient and judicious advocates of the anti-slavery cause. (See p. 656 of Still's “Underground railroad,” and pp. 32, 33 of Proceedings of the American Anti-Slavery Society, Third Decade.) Its effect on George Thompson, of England, will be related hereafter. At the time of the appearance of the “Thoughts,” Mr. Wright was Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy in the Western Reserve College at Hudson, O.. and so a colleague of President Storrs and Professor Green (Lib. 3.2). It should be mentioned here that it was owing exclusively to the liberality of Isaac Winslow, of Portland, that Mr. Garrison was enabled to publish his Thoughts (Ms. Aug. 20. 1867, to Samuel May, Jr.

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