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[60] who had settled for a while in Ulster before emigrating to America. “About one-third of the colonists in 1760,” says Professor Channing, “were born outside of America.” Crevecceur's Letters from an American farmer thus defined the Americans: “They are a mixture of English, Scotch, Irish, French, Dutch, Germans, and Swedes. From this promiscuous breed that race now called Americans has arisen.” The Atlantic seaboard, with a narrow strip inland, was fairly well covered by local communities, differing in blood, in religion, in political organization-“a congeries of separate experiments” or young utopias, waiting for that most utopian experiment of all, a federal union. But the dominant language of the “promiscuous breed” was English, and in the few real centers of intellectual life the English tradition was almost absolute.

The merest glance at colonial journalism will confirm this estimate. The Boston news-letter, begun in 1704, was the first of the journals, if we omit the single issue of Publick Occurrences in the same town in 1690. By 1765 there were nearly fifty colonial newspapers and several magazines. Their influence made for union, in Franklin's sense of that word, and their literary models,

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