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[294] have discovered that I was speaking memoriter. Rynders interrupted me again and again, exclaiming that I lied, that I was personal; but he ended with applauding me!

No greater contrast to what was to follow could possibly be imagined than the genial manner, firm tones, and selfpossession, the refined discourse, of this Unitarian clergyman, who was felt to have turned the current of the1 meeting. Up rose, as per agreement, one ‘ProfessorGrant, a seedy-looking personage, having one hand tied round with a dirty cotton cloth. Mr. Garrison recognized2 him as a former pressman in the Liberator office. His thesis was that the blacks were not men, but belonged to the monkey tribe. His speech proved dull and tiresome, and was made sport of by his own set, whom Mr.3 Garrison had to call to order. There were now loud cries for Frederick Douglass, who came forward to where Rynders stood in the conspicuous position he had taken “when he thought the meeting was his, and remained in it, too mortified even to creep away, when he found it was somebody else's.” Nat. A. S. Standard, 10.199. ‘Now you can speak,’ said he to Douglass;4 ‘but mind what I say: if you speak disrespectfully [of the South, or Washington, or Patrick Henry] Ill knock you off the stage.’ Nothing daunted, the ex-fugitive from greater terrors began:

The gentleman who has just spoken has undertaken to prove that the blacks are not human beings. He has examined our whole conformation, from top to toe. I cannot follow him in his argument. I will assist him in it, however. I offer myself for your examination. Am I a man? Furness's 50th Anniversary of a Pastorate, p. 31.


The audience responded with a thunderous affirmative, which Captain Rynders sought to break by exclaiming: ‘You are not a black man; you are only half a nigger.’ “ ‘Then,’ replied Mr. Douglass, turning upon him with the blandest of smiles and an almost affectionate obeisance, ‘I am half-brother to Captain Rynders!’ ” Nat. A. S. Standard. 10.199, 207. He would not deny that he was the son of a slaveholder, born of Southern ‘amalgamation’; a fugitive, too, like Kossuth

1 Nat. A. S. Standard, 10.199.

2 50th Anniversary of a Pastorate, p. 31.

3 Ibid.; Nat. A. S. Standard, 10.199.

4 Nat. A. S. Standard, 10.202; N. Y. Herald, May 8, 1850.

5 Cf. ante, p. 19.

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