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[417] an act of disunion, that demanded extraordinary measures of retaliation, even to the exclusion of the State's representatives in Congress. Governor Gardner viewed it in the same light when he vetoed it, but the Legislature stood1 firm, and passed the act again over his veto. It was the high-water mark of Northern manhood.

In Kansas, on the other hand, the Slave Power was in the ascendant. Hordes of degraded beings, such as only slavery and whiskey could produce, crossed in arms at the2 spring elections from Missouri into the Territory, took possession of the polling-places, terrorized and maltreated judges of election and free-State voters, stuffed the boxes with ballots in wild excess of the census-voting population, and elected a legislature which purged itself of3 every free-State delegate, removed the capital nearer the4 Missouri border, adopted the slave code of that State, and5 in other ways completed what Governor Reeder himself rightly called the subjugation of Kansas. Powerless to6 rectify the doings of this bogus body, for what he did do7 honestly the Governor was removed by President Pierce8 and succeeded by Wilson Shannon, who acknowledged the9 legality of the Legislature, and put himself openly at the10 head of the invaders, assuring them of the firm support of the Administration at Washington. Every difference growing out of the unsettled state of society in a new country—and disputes over titles to the land were inevitable— was liable to array free-State men against slave-State, and to end in bloodshed. The first homicide of this11 character occurred before Governor Reeder's dismissal, and nearly led to a pitched battle. Arms were sent to the12 Territory by the friends of the Emigrant Aid Association to prevent the extermination of the Northern settlers. Gerrit Smith and his little knot of Simon Pure Liberty Party men, now styling themselves Radical Political Abolitionists and met in convention at Syracuse June 27, 28, took up a collection in response to an appeal from ‘a Mr. John Brown, who had five sons in Kansas, and who13 was desirous to join them. They had written for arms ’

1 Lib. 25.82.

2 Lib. 25.17, 55, 61, 62, 66, 67, 73.

3 Lib. 25.123.

4 Lib. 25.123.

5 Lib. 25.133, 134, 139, 143, 146; 26.49.

6 Lib. 25.71.

7 Lib. 25.67, 123.

8 Lib. 25.131.

9 Lib. 25.146.

10 Lib. 25.191, 193, 201.

11 Lib. 25.86, 87, 105, 131.

12 Lib. 25.91; Sanborn's John Brown, pp. 212-215.

13 Lib. 25.107.

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