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[436] swim with Border-Ruffian supremacy in Kansas, the Territory was plunged deeper and deeper into civil war, with the United States troops as a complicating factor— dispersing the free-State Legislature, disarming1 Northern immigrant bodies as well as attempting to exclude the Southern raiders, and assisting in the execution of ‘bogus’ writs. Three Southern armies spread terror in every free-State settlement, especially Lawrence, whose hotel and printing-office were battered down by way of2 judicial abatement as nuisances, and Osawatomie, which3 was sacked. Entrance to Kansas by the Missouri River4 route was practically closed, and even the Iowa and Nebraska frontiers were watched and picketed. The first free-State reprisals were made by John Brown in what5 his latest biographer calls the ‘Pottawatomie executions’ —midnight extirpation with the sword, in true Southern6 fashion, of a nest of harborers of Border Ruffianism; and the capture of a raiding company at Black Jack Creek,7 ‘the first regular battle fought between free-State and pro-slavery men in Kansas.’

Wanton bloodshed in that Territory, and not antislavery principle, wrought the North to the pitch of resistance symbolized by the vote for Fremont. It carried the clergy off their feet, and opened their churches to meetings for the donation of Sharp's rifles for KansasHenry Ward8 Beecher and Theodore Parker being conspicuous in the9 promotion of this object, and both incurring Mr. Garrison's friendly and discriminating censure. To the former,10 who had said, ‘You might just as well read the Bible to11 buffaloes as to those fellows who follow Atchison and12 Stringfellow,’ he rejoined:

Is it not to be sorely pressed, yea, to yield the whole ground,13 to represent any class of our fellow-creatures as being on the same level with wild beasts? To such a desperate shift does the slaveholder resort, to screen himself from condemnation. The negroes, he avers, are an inferior race—a connecting link between men and monkeys—and therefore it is folly to talk of giving them liberty and equal rights.

1 Lib. 26.127, 171, 103.

2 Lib. 26.87, 95.

3 Lib. 26.99.

4 Lib. 26.107, 110, 129, [135], [147], 171.

5 Sanborn's John Brown, chap. IX.

6 May 25, 1856.

7 June 2, 1856. Sanborn's John Brown, p. 241.

8 Lib. 26.51.

9 Lib. 26.51, 54.

10 Lib. 26.34, 42, 54, 58.

11 Lib. 26.42.

12 D. R. Atchison. B. F. Stringfellow.

13 Lib. 26.42.

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