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Chapter 9: Father Mathew.—1849.

Father Mathew, having visited Boston on his temperance mission to the United States, is invited by the Massachusetts Anti-slavery Society to renew his testimony against slavery (as a signer of the Irish Address of 1842) at a celebration of British West India Emancipation. Garrison drafts and presents the invitation, but is met with shuffling and refusal. He exposes this behavior in the Liberator, and makes Father Mathew's Southern tour both easy and difficult. Death of Charles Follen Garrison. Garrison vindicates free discussion of the Bible in the Liberator.

The historian of the anti-slavery cause—or of the country—for the year we have now reached, must tell of the two great tides of feeling and passion surging from North to South and from South to North, over the question of the Federal Territories. Should the Wilmot Proviso secure to California and New Mexico1 the freedom decreed them by the country from which they had been torn; should the Missouri Compromise line of 1820 be extended to the Pacific; or should the contention of the Southern extremists prevail, viz., that slave property had, equally with all other kinds of property, a right to be taken into any part of the national domain not definitively organized and admitted as one of the States of the Union? Should, again, the renewed efforts, described in the last chapter, to purge the seat of the national Government of2 the sin and scandal of slaveholding and slave-trading succeed, or be resisted even to the death of the Union itself?

In the winter months of 1848-49 the North as a whole3 stood firm in its pledge to non-extension of slavery and emancipation in the District. On the other hand the South, through its legislatures and other organs of public4 opinion, was more truly unanimous in pronouncing for disunion in case either article of this programme should triumph in Congress. In spite of some reluctance in the

1 Not merely the area we now know by that name, but nearly the whole of Arizona, with parts of Nevada and Colorado. See Map XV., Statistical Atlas U. S. Census, 1880.

2 Ante, p. 236.

3 Lib. 19.5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 19, 27, 41, 62.

4 Lib. 19.1, 5, 14, 25, 27, 29.

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