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M, little door by which to enter the bar.

N, door for witnesses and lawyers.

O, door for the public.

P, door to the judges' room.

I had a good seat, and heard several trials with the greatest pleasure. As among us, the defences chiefly fell to the hands of very young members of the bar; persons who are, as it were, in their apprentissage. I was much interested in seeing the application of the French criminal code. Its provisions were followed completely, and I sat with it in my hand while the trials proceeded. The arguments of the Procureur-General and of the counsel in defence were shorter than with us, and the charge of the judge much shorter and less elaborate.

In the evening went to the grand Opera Francais, and saw the splendid ballet-pantomime of Le Diable Boiteux, and the dancing of Fanny Elssler.1 I did not think before that scenery and spectacle could be carried so far as they were in this piece.

April 3. Again at the Palais de Justice and in the Cour d'assises; feel more and more interested in the administration of justice here.

April 4. At the Cour d'assises. Have now heard many cases; am much pleased with the French penal code in many particulars,—its definitions of crimes are much more natural and intelligible to common persons than ours; do not see that the habit of examining the accused works badly; like the system of the jury's expressing an opinion on different circumstances which attend the crime, but am not so much pleased with the requisition of a majority of seven. Cross-examination seems unknown. I have heard a very few questions put to witnesses by counsel, but of all the witnesses that I have seen not one has been insulted or treated with harshness. Always, as the judges enter or retire, the spectators, lawyers, and jury rise; but neither the judges nor jury rise during the charge. The verdict is given while the prisoner is out of the room, and he is immediately called in and it is announced to him. If it be ‘Coupable,’ the judges rise and confer together (on one occasion I saw them retire to their room and agree upon the sentence, having regard to the code); if it be ‘Non coupable,’ the accused is discharged, the judge perhaps giving him some good moral advice.

In the evening, heard Corneille's great production, Cinna, at the Odeon.

April 5. At the Cour d'assises; also was at the exhibition of the Sourds-Muets,—the deaf and dumb.

April 6. At the Cour d'assises; heard part of a rather complicated case for forgery. At three o'clock, went with Mr. Wilks (‘O. P.Q.’) to visit David,2

1 Fanny Elssler (sister of Therese, who was born in 1808) was born in Vienna in 1811. She won great applause as a dancer in European cities, appearing in Paris in 1834. She, with her sister, visited the United States in 1841. She took leave of the stage in 1851, and has since resided at her villa near Hamburg.

2 Pierre Jean David, 1789-1856. His first great work was a statue of the Prince of Conde. He was an earnest Republican, and his genius delighted most in commemorating in busts and statues the benefactors of mankind,—as scholars, men of science, patriots, and liberal statesmen. Sumner wrote to Hillard, April 10, of his visit to David: ‘I was presented to him as a Republican and an American, which at once opened his heart.’

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