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[160] philosophy; and, during our civil war, often sought his views on questions of international and public law. Lieber's answers, given with great promptness, were always conspicuous for their good sense and knowledge of precedents.

Sumner's correspondence and association with foreigners, always much enjoyed by him, began at this period. The editing of the ‘Jurist’ brought him into relations with foreign writers upon jurisprudence. Among these were Foelix,1 and Wolowski,2 both of Paris; Dr. Julius3 of Berlin; Professor Mittermaier4 of Heidelberg; and Arthur J. Johnes of Lincoln's Inn, London. Mr. Johnes had recently written a small volume on the ‘Reform of the Court of Chancery,’ proposing the amalgamation of law and equity, which attracted Sumner's attention.5 Dr. Julius was a student of penitentiary science, and made Sumner's acquaintance during his visit to this country in 1835.6 Foelix, the editor of the Revue Étrangere, was afterwards to render Sumner substantial kindness during the latter's visit to Paris. Louis Wolowski7 was the editor of the Revue de Legislation et de Jurisprudence; of Polish birth, and an exile, he had become a French citizen. Political economy rather than jurisprudence was to give him his fame. In time of birth he differed from Sumner less than a year. Each began his career as the editor of a law magazine, and each ended it as a senator. Sumner met in a very friendly way Harriet Martineau at the time of her visit to Boston in 1835-36, and in a letter to Judge Story she spoke of him and Hillard as ‘glorious fellows.’ With his Scotch friend, Thomas Brown, he had much correspondence, both while the latter remained in America and after his return home. He was

1 American Jurist, April, 1834, Vol. XI. p. 495; Oct. 1835, Vol. XIV. p. 493.

2 American Jurist, April, 1835, Vol. XIII. p. 483; Oct. 1835, Vol. XIV. p. 489.

3 American Jurist, Oct. 1837, Vol. XVIII. pp. 254-258.

4 Karl Joseph Anton Mittermaier. 1787-1867.

5 American Jurist, April, 1835, Vol. XIII., pp. 459-465; a notice probably written by Sumner.

6 1783-1862. Dr. Nikolaus H. Julius. He lived at Hamburg the later years of his life. He gave his time largely to the inspection of prisons, and to writing upon prison systems. He was the German translator of ‘Ticknor's History of Spanish Literature.’

7 1810-1876. Wolowski was chosen a member of the Chamber of Deputies in 1848-49, and 1871, and afterwards a senator for life. In 1839, he became a law professor in the Conservatory of the Arts and Trades; and in 1855 was admitted to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. He founded the first Credit foncier of Paris, which became the Credit fancier of France. His funeral on Aug. 18, 1876, though simple in rites, was imposing in the attendance of distinguished men. The religious services were held at the Église de la Trinite, and a discourse was pronounced at Pere La Chaise on behalf of the Academy. Journal des Debats, Aug. 19, 1876. ‘London Times,’ Aug. 17, 1876.

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