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[461] one side could be beaten back only by courage on the other, and when the Northern masses needed as an inspiration the spectacle of a manly and fearless spirit on the part of their leaders in Washington.1

Meantime Sumner, who was constitutionally devoid of fear, had no thought that any one was meditating violence against him; nor was there any prevailing suspicion of danger among his friends.2 Bingham of the House, however, who was present when Douglas and Mason were speaking on Tuesday, was led to believe from the language and manner of senators, particularly from Douglas's expression, ‘Is it his object to provoke us to kick him?’ and his allusion to what would happen when Butler returned, that an attempt to assault Sumner was being meditated, or that it was intended to produce or encourage an assault; and before the Senate adjourned on that day he communicated his apprehensions to Wilson, whom he advised to take precautions against it.3 Wilson thereupon asked Burlingame and Colfax of the House to join him in walking with Sumner from the Capitol, and then told Sumner that himself and others were going home with him.4 Sumner, who caught his meaning, but, unsuspicious of danger, treated what his colleague said as trifling, answered, ‘None of that, Wilson!’5 He went at once to the reporters' desk to see about the proofs of his speech, and avoiding Wilson, passed out at the side door. Wilson and Burlingame supposed he was to return; but as he did not, they went out, descended the steps of the Capitol, and waited for him at the porter's lodge until they heard he had gone home.6 Sumner, after leaving the Capitol on foot, happened to overtake Seward, with whom he was to drive that day; and the latter proposed that they should go in an omnibus to

1 There was the same difference of opinion among English people. Dr. Palfrey was in England at the time, and was present when Lord Elgin expressed his opinion that Sumner had better not have said some things which he did say; but the Duchess of Argyll defended him fully.

2 No careful analysis of the evidence relating to Brooks's assault on the senator was made at the time, and the effort is now made to supply one. The Congressional Globe (June 2, 1856, Thirty-fourth Congress, first session, pp. 1348-1367) is cited, being more accessible to the public than the volume containing the committee's report.

3 Wilson's and Bingham's testimony. (Congressional Globe, pp. 1357, 1358.) Some others had suspicions. Darling, an employee, testified that he was ‘rather expecting something of the sort,’ p. 1360.

4 Wilson's testimony. Congressional Globe, p. 1357.

5 Sumner's testimony. Ibid., p. 1353.

6 Wilson's testimony. Ibid., p. 1357.

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