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[500] foreheads wherever they may wander in the earth. . . . Let Mr. Sumner hear that every man of worth in New England loves his virtues; that every mother thinks of him as the protector of families; that every friend of freedom thinks him the friend of freedom. And if our arms at this distance cannot defend him from assassins, we confide the defence of a life so precious to all honorable men and true patriots, and to the Almighty Maker of men.

On two occasions the elder Quincy, late President of Harvard College, now in his eighty-fifth year, spoke or wrote with all the fire of youth. In like tone was heard the voice of Charles Allen at Worcester, and that of Oliver Wendell Holmes at a meeting of the Massachusetts Medical Society. In these meetings many who had known Sumner from his youth took part; and though some had been divided from him by the antislavery conflict, all bore witness to the genuineness of his character, and the purity and nobleness of his aims. None lost sight of the significance of the assault as an attempt to put an end to free speech and to constitutional liberty. Attention was called to the increased power which Sumner was hereafter to wield, and to the new force which the event had brought to the antislavery movement.

A resolution was offered in the Legislature of Massachusetts, by formal advice of the governor, for the payment of the expenses of the senator's illness; and about the same time a popular subscription was started for a testimonial to him for his defence of freedom in Congress, in which the signers expressed unqualified approbation of his recent speech. Sumner promptly arrested both movements, asking that any such contributions should be applied to the cause of freedom in Kansas.1

Not only in popular assemblies was the outrage denounced; but also in private associations, in religious bodies, in meetings of clergymen, in colleges and schools, the sentiment of an educated and humane people found vent. The women of the free States were deeply affected by the outrage, and at a million firesides prayers were offered for the recovery of him who had suffered for a great cause. It may again be stated, what has been already noted in an earlier chapter, that no public man in the United States by his speeches and personality ever touched so much as Sumner the hearts of intelligent and Christian women. Letters of sympathy came at once to him, and continued to come from every part of the free States, from correspondents, distinguished or known only to neighbors and

1 June 13, 1856. Works, vol. IV. p. 344.

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