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[601] better on the part of the Democratic senators, Northern or Southern. Notwithstanding what he had passed through, they withheld all expression of sympathy or welcome. Seward, however, who, absent in Europe when the session began, did not take his seat till after the holiday recess, had hardly a more friendly reception.1 The bitterness of the two sections had increased since Sumner's last participation in the business of the Senate. Their recognition of each other was no longer social, but only formal and official. The amenities of life were suspended; and foreign ministers were obliged to invite their guests by sections.2 Sumner saw in this non-intercourse signs of the rupture which was to come within a twelvemonth. He wrote to David L. Child, Jan. 16, 1860—

All things here show how politics and society are barbarized by slavery. There is now little intercourse between the two sides. So far as I am concerned, tant mieux. This is one of the signs that the bonds of union are weakening; indeed, I should not be astonished if the Gulf States went off, a Gulf squadron, and hoisted the black flag.

Abstaining from general society, then much broken up by sectional heats, he dined often with the family of C. F. Adams, now serving his first session in Congress. He was frequently at the table of Lord Lyons,3 now British minister, with whom he remained in agreeable intercourse while the latter continued at Washington. He became intimate with Rodolph Schleiden,4 minister from the Hanseatic towns from 1853 to 1864, well versed in European affairs, and a shrewd observer of public men and passing events. The two bachelors dined together at least once a week, either at Schleiden's apartment or at a restaurant.5 Their topics were American and foreign politics, as well as literature and art. Sumner always valued the observations of an impartial spectator of our affairs, and none more than those of

1 As to the military preparations at the South, see speeches of Miles in the House, Jan. 6, 1860; Van Wyck, March 7; and Mason in the Senate, March 1. Von Hoist, vol. VII. pp. 111-114, 366 note. Nicolay and Hay's ‘Life of Lincoln,’ vol. II. pp. 300, 333.

2 Sumner wrote to Whittier, Jan. 27, 1860: ‘Society is dislocated; the diplomats cannot give a dinner without studying their lists as a protocol.’

3 1817-1887. He was in Washington from 1858 to 1865.

4 Mr. Schleiden has for several years lived in Freiburg in Baden, where the writer had the pleasure of meeting him in 1889.

5 Among entertainments given by Mr. Schleiden was a dinner, two days before Mr. Lincoln's inauguration, to the diplomatic corps, when Seward and Sumner had seats together at the table.

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