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[619] in our history, making ‘not only a new President, but a new government,’1 and commended for support the two candidates for Congress from Boston,—Burlingame and Alexander H. Rice, the former of whom, however, failed of an election.2 On all these occasions he was received with every mark of popular affection and confidence.

Sumner's activity in the canvass of 1860 was confined to Massachusetts, and he withstood solicitations to speak elsewhere.3 His thoughts were fully before the public in his speech in the Senate and his address at Cooper Institute; and, as already indicated, he had come to value far more the effect of an argument on the public mind as widely distributed in the public journals than as delivered from the platform before a limited number of people. He wrote to a friend in New York, just before delivering his address in that city, ‘My hope is through the press to speak to the whole country.’

Lincoln received in Massachusetts one hundred and six thousand votes; Douglas, thirty-four thousand; Bell, twenty-two thousand; and Breckinridge, six thousand. In the electoral colleges Lincoln received one hundred and eighty votes; Breckinridge, seventy-two; Bell, thirty-nine; and Douglas, twelve. The Unionists in the South were divided between Douglas and Bell. In the North the rump of the Whig party—those antipathetic to antislavery sentiments—supported Bell and Everett; and their leaders in Massachusetts were chiefly the old opponents of the Conscience Whigs,—Winthrop, Eliot, Stevenson, G. T. Curtis, Walley, and Hillard.4 The Whig conservatism of Boston had been broken up; but a remnant of five thousand votes was given in the city for Bell and Everett, principally cast by voters having a mercantile interest or connection, while the masses gave nearly ten thousand votes for Lincoln, and divided five thousand between the two Democratic candidates, Douglas and Breckinridge.

1 Works, vol. v. pp. 338-347; Atlas and Bee, November 6.

2 Mr. Burlingame's defeat, which Sumner deeply regretted (Works, vol. v. pp. 348, 349), led to a new career,—his appointment by Mr. Lincoln as Minister to China, and his subsequent diplomatic service for the Chinese Empire, in which he died, Feb. 23, 1870, at St. Petersburg, at the age of forty-nine.

3 Letters declining to speak at meetings are found in Works, vol. v. pp. 190, 230, 231, 234, 269, 271.

4 Some of these leaders are described in the New York Tribune; September 17, and the BostonAtlas and Bee,’ September 28. Felton, at this time President of Harvard College, and George Ticknor voted for Bell and Everett.

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