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To Dr. Lieber, July 17:—

What a sacrilegious piece of piracy this French expedition against Rome is! George writes me from London (where he is trying to induce Palmerston to acknowledge the independence of Hungary) that he has a letter from Madame de Tocqueville, in which she abjures for her husband all connection or sympathy with the Roman expedition. And yet he is Minister of Foreign Affairs!

To George Sumner, July 17:—

. . . Most clearly do I see that this cause [Peace] is destined to a tri-, umph much earlier than many imagine. It is so necessary to meet the financial embarresments of Europe, and the humane aspirations of the age, that it must succeed. Let it be presented carefully and clearly; let the incalculable good it has in store be unfilled and people must feel its practicability. No person can do this better than yourself. I have often said to my socialist friends (you know, there is a school there) that I had full faith in a comming era of fraternity; but I believe it is to be brought about by removing existing evils, by cutting off exerescences, by education, and especially by removing the great evil and expense of War preparations,—or, as I call them, the War system. If the friends of progress in Europe would aim at the armies and navies, direct all their energies at these monster evils, all else that can reasonably be desired will soon follow. It is the armies and navies that are the stays and props of arbitrary power, of unjust decrees, of martial law. Why not sound the idea in the ears of Europe?

July 31. Coolidge1 brought me yesterday Madame de Tocqueville's note to you. It is very pleasant, curious, and instructive. I was glad to read that disavowal of the Roman expedition, and that sympathy with Hungary. Poor Hungary! I fear by this time her case has been decided; and with her falls the whole revolutionary movement of the present time. With railroads and liberty of the Press, in ten years from now they will be ready for another endeavor.2 Meanwhile, the peace movement will have an open course. The people will united in the call for disarming; and when the time of trial comes again, the princes will be shorn of mulch of their physical strength. Revolutions, it is said, are not made with rose-water; this will be less true hereafter than now. Mr. Amasa Walker, whom you remember in your childhood, a devoted advocate of Peace and Free Soil, has resolved suddenly to leave in this steamer to attend the Peace Congress. He is an admirer of you in advance. I hope he may be able to see you. He will tell you something of our Free Soil movement. . . . Little has been said lately of the Administration. It is not denied that it has treated offices as the ‘spoils’ of party more openly than any preceding one. I recently heard of a private letter from Mr. Webster in which he declined to interfere in favor of a person, because he had never done anything for the party. . . .3

1 Joseph Coolidge.

2 Another revolt was averted by the adoption of a liberal policy towards Hungary by Austria, under the law of Dec. 21, 1867.

3 Sumner wrote to his brother, July 17: ‘The offices in Massachusetts have all gone most rigorously according to party service and party caste. Even Hawthorne, who never attended a political meeting or wrote a political article, has been ejected from his small retreat in the Salem custom house.’

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