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[91] systems, and earnestly advocating that of Pennsylvania;1 by Henry H. Fuller, a hard-headed lawyer, who spoke twice, commending the resolutions in terse and pertinent remarks; and by Hillard, who appeared only once in the debate, urging fairness in the reports of the Society, and rebuking an anonymous newspaper attack on Sumner.2 On the other side there were several speakers,—Rev. George Allen, of Worcester, who consumed one hour in his first speech and two in another, comparing to some extent the two systems, but chiefly defending with friendly zeal Mr. Dwight; Bradford Sumner, a lawyer respectable in character, but moderate in professional attainments; J. Thomas Stevenson, who confessed that he knew nothing about prison discipline, and whose late participation in the debate was due only to his political antipathy to Sumner and Dr. Howe; and Francis C. Gray,3 who though lacking the qualities of an attractive public speaker, was better equipped for the debate than any other of Dwight's party. Mr. Gray spoke at three meetings, occupying an hour at some of them; he assailed Sumner's report as containing an implied but undeserved censure of the Society and its officers, charged the Pennsylvania system with promoting insanity, rejected the opinions of foreigners quoted in its favor as not tested by experience, and moved the indefinite postponement of the resolutions. Eliot spoke twice, sharply criticising Sumner's report, particularly in its use of the treasurer's figures; he took little time in debate, but his manner seems to have stirred Sumner very much. Dwight spoke the same evening, and appeared, according to the newspapers, much exhausted.

Midway in the course of the meetings of this year, Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop sought to compose the differences by offering a series of resolutions as a substitute, which, while avoiding all terms capable of being construed as a reflection on former action of

1 June 2 and 16. Dr. Howe's speech of June 16 is fully reported in the ‘Semi-Weekly Courier,’ June 24.

2 Sumner, Howe, and Hillard were the subjects of coarse attacks in communications printed in the Boston Post, June 2, 4, 9, and 22. The first article was replied to by a writer in that journal, June 5. The Boston Advertiser, June 26 and 30, contained communications friendly to Dwight.

3 1796-1856. Mr. Gray was in his youth the private secretary of John Quincy Adams at the time of the latter's mission to Russia. His writings were miscellaneous, chiefly articles for reviews, and related to history, poetry, foreign literature, commerce, and science. He is spoken of by his surviving contemporaries as a person most remarkable for the variety and fulness of his knowledge; and his vigorous intellect easily digested his acquisitions. It was not for want of natural gifts or of liberal training that he failed to become one of the eminent men of his State.

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