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[323] Twice, at the next session, when carried at his instance, it met the same fate;1 but his fourth effort at the beginning of President Grant's administration was successful. This is an illustration of his pertinacity.

Sumner carried through at this time a resolution of sympathy with Crete in her struggle against Turkey,2 another denouncing the Coolie trade,3 and another prohibiting persons in our diplomatic service from wearing a uniform or official costume.4 He moved the expulsion of Saulsbury, a senator, for appearing repeatedly in the Senate in a state of intoxication, but let the resolution lie on the table upon that senator's promising amendment.5 He received the thanks of temperance societies for this effort in behalf of sobriety and decency,—one which few senators would have had the courage to make in the case of an associate. He was no cynic; but exhibitions of drunkenness excited his disgust, and he had always a keen sense of the dignity and decorum becoming to the Senate.

The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. McCulloch, a stout supporter of Johnson's policy, had appointed, contrary to the statute, officers in Southern States who could not take the required oath of loyalty,—justifying the illegal appointments on the ground that by the universal participation of the people in the rebellion no discrimination was possible.6 Sumner had at the time they were made in 1865 protested, in correspondence

1 Dec. 5, 12, 1867; Jan. 7, 24: Feb. 24, 1868; Congressional Globe, pp. 38, 151, 344– 346, 720, 1373; Feb. 11, 1869, Globe, p. 1080. He had a prohibition of the discrimination inserted in a bill amending the charter of the city of Washington, April 7, 1868; Globe, pp. 2260-2267.

2 July 19, 1867; Works, vol. XI. pp. 426. Later he carried other resolutions of sympathy with Crete. July 21, 1868; Works, vol. XI. pp. 427, 428.

3 Jan. 16. 1867; Works, vol. XI. p. 82.

4 March 20, 1867; Works, vol. XI. pp. 164-167. Other subjects in which Sumner took an interest were the reconstruction of the levees of the Mississippi, which he thought should be postponed until the restoration to the Union of the States in which they were situated, March 29, 1867 (Works, vol. XI. pp. 178-180); cenotaphs in the Congressional burialground for senators dying in Washington and buried elsewhere, a measure which he disapproved, Feb. 27, 1867 (Works, vol. XI. pp. 119, 120); the completion of the Atlantic cable, which drew from him a tribute to Cyrus W. Field, March 2, 1867 (Works, vol. XI. pp. 121-123), and a letter to a banquet committee, Nov. 14, 1866 (Ibid., pp. 40-41); George Peabody's munificent gift for education in the Southern States, for which he introduced a resolution of thanks, afterwards adopted by a vote of both houses,—both Mr. Peabody and Mr. Winthrop acknowledging gratefully his speech and action,—March 8, 1867 (Works, vol. XI. pp. 137-140).

5 April 5, 1867, Congressional Globe, p. 825; Boston Journal, April 6; New York Independent, April 25.

6 Feb. 7, 1867, Congressional Globe, pp. 1051-1053; February 28, Globe, pp. 1899, 1911.

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