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[338] different opinion; and died squeaking it to the waving tree-tops, as he was borne irresistibly along to where the hawk could most conveniently devour him.

Mr. Greeley does not attempt to refute the argument of the prosperous conservative. He dwells for a moment upon the fact, that while life is a battle in which men fight, not for, but against each other, the victors must necessarily be few and ever fewer, the victims numberless and ever more hopeless. Resting his argument upon the evident fact that the majority of mankind are poor, unsafe, and uninstructed, he endeavors to show how the condition of the masses can be alleviated by legislation, and how by their own cooperative exertions. The State, he contends, should ordain, and the law should be fundamental, that no man may own more than a certain, very limited extent of land; that the State should fix a definition to the phrase, “a day's work;” that the State should see to it, that no child grows up in ignorance; that the State is bound to prevent the selling of alcoholic beverages. Those who are interested in such subjects will find them amply and ably treated by Mr. Greeley in his published writings.

But there are two short passages in the volume of Hints towards Reforms, which seem to contain the essence of Horace Greeley's teachings as to the means by which the people are to be elevated, spiritually and materially. The following is extracted from the lecture on the Relations of Learning to Labor. It is addressed to the educated and professional classes.

‘Why,’ asks Horace Greeley,

should not the educated class create an atmosphere, not merely of exemplary morals and refined manners, but of palpable utility and blessing? Why should not the clergyman, the doctor, the lawyer, of a country town be not merely the patrons and commenders of every generous idea, the teachers and dispensers of all that is novel in science or noble in philosophy—examplars of integrity, of amenity, and of an all-pervading humanity to those around them—but even in a more material sphere regarded and blessed as universal benefactors? Why should they not be universally—as I rejoice to say that some of them are—models of wisdom and thrift in agriculture—their farms and gardens silent but most effective preachers of the benefits of forecast, calculation, thorough knowledge and faithful application? Nay, more: Why should not the educated class be everywhere teachers, through lectures, essays, conversations, as well as practically, of those great and important truths of nature, which chemistry and

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