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‘ [357] in its operation does not require any considerable number of officers to collect the duty, and it would require no particular vigilance; and the duty on paper alone would be most equal and most efficient as a revenue duty.’

Chairman. ‘It is clear, then, that the effect of the stamp and advertisement duty is to lessen the amount of the receipt from the duty on paper.’

Mr. Greeley. ‘Enormously. I see that the circulation of daily papers in London is but sixty thousand, against a hundred thousand in New York; while the tendency is more to concentrate on London than on New York. Not a tenth part of our daily papers are printed in New York.’

Mr. Cobden. ‘do you consider, that there are upwards of a million papers issued daily from the press in the United States?’

Mr. Greeley. ‘I should say about a million: I cannot say upwards. I think there are about two hundred and fifty daily journals published in the United States.’

Mr. Cobden. ‘At what amount of population does a town in the United States begin to have a daily paper? They first of all begin with a weekly paper, do they not?’

Mr. Greeley. ‘Yes. The general rule is, that each county will have one weekly newspaper. In all the Free States, if a county have a population of twenty thousand, it has two papers, one for each party. The general average in the agricultural counties is one local journal to every ten thousand inhabitants. When a town grows to have fifteen thousand inhabitants in and about it, then it has a daily paper; but sometimes that is the case when it has as few as ten thousand: it depends more on the business of a place than its population. But fifteen thousand may be stated as the average at which a daily paper commences; at twenty thousand they have two, and so on. In central towns, like Buffalo, Rochester, Troy, they have from three to five daily journals, each of which prints a semi-weekly or a weekly journal.’

Mr. rich. ‘Have your papers much circulation outside the towns in which they are published?’

Mr. Greeley. ‘The county is the general limit; though some have a judicial district of five or six counties.’

Mr. rich. ‘Would the New York paper, for instance, have much circulation in Charleston’?

Mr. Greeley. ‘The New York Herald, I think, which is considered the journal most friendly to Southern interests, has a considerable circulation.’

Chairman. ‘When a person proposes to publish a paper in New York, he is not required to go to any office to register himself, or to give security that he will not insert libels or seditious matter? A newspaper publisher is not subject to any liability more than other persons?’

Mr. Greeley. ‘No; no more than a man that starts a blacksmith's shop.’

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