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[100] larger regiment, lost one-eighth of its number, including Lieuts. Francis Thomas of Weymouth and Charles G. Russell of Boston. Both these regiments were in the second division of the First Corps, under Maj.-Gen. J. F. Reynolds, though temporarily commanded by Maj.-Gen. Abner Doubleday. The First Corps was, on this first day, in the words of its commander, ‘broken and defeated but not discouraged,’ and was ‘a mere advance guard of the army.’ The men captured were largely taken in the effort to reach General Steinwehr's division on Cemetery Hill, which was their rallying point.1

On the second day of Gettysburg (July 2), Massachusetts regiments were with General Sickles in his firm resistance to the Confederate attack; these being the 18th and 22d and the 5th and 9th batteries. Col. W. S. Tilton, commanding brigade, says that ‘the officers and men showed the greatest coolness and courage.’2 In other parts of the line the heaviest losses fell on the 1st, 11th, 15th, 16th, 19th, 20th and 28th. In the afternoon, when two regiments (the 15th Mass., Col. G. H. Ward, and the 82d New York, Col. Huston) were sent forward to fill a gap in the lines, they sheltered themselves behind a hastily constructed breastwork of rails, and sustained a very severe attack of the enemy, both colonels being killed or mortally wounded, and both regiments forced back, losing also a number of prisoners.3 Lieut.-Col. G. C. Joslin mentions with especial commendation Maj. I. H. Hooper and Lieut. D. M. Earle, acting adjutant.

The 28th Mass. was ordered on the second day to carry the position of the enemy on the crest of a wooded hill, and accordingly advanced over the crest and nearly to the bottom of the hill, when they in turn were obliged to retire, being flanked on both sides, and with a loss of nearly half the force carried in.4

The 32d Mass. (Col. Geo. L. Prescott) distinguished itself by holding its ground after the breach in Sickles's Corps was made. The 32d was in front, the 4th Michigan and 62d Pennsylvania being behind it. ‘When the attack commenced,’ says Col. J. B. Sweitzer, commanding brigade, ‘word was sent by General Barnes that when we retired we should fall back under cover of the woods. This order was communicated to Colonel

1 Doubleday's Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, p. 150.

2 Official War Records, 43, p. 698.

3 Report of Lieut.-Col. G. C. Joslin, Official War Records, 43, p. 423. See also pp. 371, 417.

4 Colonel Byrnes's report is in Official War Records, 43, p. 387.

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