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[118] were Maj. Henry L. Abbott (20th Mass.), of whom General Hancock said: ‘This brilliant young officer, by his courageous conduct in action, the high state of discipline in his regiment and his devotion to duty at all times, had obtained the highest reputation among his commanding officers. His loss was greatly deplored.’1 Capt. Joseph S. Hills and Lieut. J. U. Woodfin (16th Mass.); Capt. J. A. McIntyre and C. P. Smith (28th Mass.); Col. C. E. Griswold (56th Mass.); Lieut.-Col. David Allen, Jr. (12th Mass.); Capts. J. W. McNamara, W. A. Phelan, Lieuts. C. B. Mc-Ginnisken and N. C. Flaherty (9th Mass.); A. W. Midgley and W. A. Ashley (10th Mass.); and Joseph Stuart (13th Mass.) were all killed or mortally wounded in the Battle of the Wilderness.2 For ‘gallantry in action’ in this battle Color-Sergeant Leopold Karpeles (Co. E, 57th Mass.) received a medal of honor.

Near Port Walthal, Va. (May 6-7), the 23d, 25th and 27th Mass. Infantry were engaged, and at Todd's Tavern (May 4, 7) the 1st Cavalry, but with small losses; these being only preliminary to the next great battle, that of Spotsylvania (May 8-18). In this prolonged and intermittent battle, the very heaviest casualties of all—including both killed and wounded—came, with one exception, upon the 1st Mass. Heavy Artillery. Its casualties (390) were exceeded only by those of the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery (481), no infantry regiment rising above 301. The two Massachusetts infantry regiments attaining very high record in both regards were the 39th (Robinson's division, 5th Corps) and the 32d (Griffin's division, 5th Corps); while several regiments exceeded the latter in killed and mortally wounded alone, namely, the 22d, 9th, 37th, 57th, 28th and 56th.

At the formidable defence of the once-captured ‘Salient,’ or ‘Bloody Angle,’ it was claimed for the brigade of Col. Oliver Edwards (37th Mass. Infantry) that it fought longer than any other brigade of the 6th Corps; and for the 37th Mass. Infantry—one of two Massachusetts regiments in that brigade, the other being the 10th--that it was in action continuously for more than twenty hours, during which time it fired more than four hundred rounds per man. At one time the guns became so foul that

1 Official War Records, 67, p. 326.

2 Official War Records, 67, p. 134. For reports of Massachusetts officers on this battle, see, in the same volume, those of Col. Oliver Edwards (p. 672), Col. N. A. Miles (p. 370), Gen. R. B. Potter (p. 927), Col. W. S. Tilton (p. 559).

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