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[135] a respectable and useful career, though less conspicuous than that of the 54th and 55th Mass. Infantry. As to German soldiers, Mr. J. G. Rosengarten, in his The German Soldier in the Wars of the United States, estimates the total number recruited in this State as 1,876, the total German population of the State, by the census of 1860, being 9,961.1 This statement is based on the calculations made by Dr. B. A. Gould for the Sanitary Commission. These soldiers were doubtless widely scattered through the regiments,2 but there were three especially German companies, and it is greatly to be regretted that the special history of these three has never been written. The late Mr. S. R. Urbino of Newtonville, who took a larger share than any one else in recruiting them, had offered to prepare a sketch for this narrative, but was prevented by death from fulfilling his purpose, and, though his papers relating to the subject have been placed in my hands, they are very scanty and fragmentary. The first two companies were formed in and near Boston, perhaps with some recruits brought from Germany. The company officers were, at first, German by birth or origin, except Lieut. J. W. LeBarnes, who was well known and popular among the German citizens of Boston, and had formed a German company for the defence of Wendell Phillips during the antislavery troubles just previous to the war.

The companies (B and C of the 20th) were unfortunate in the loss of officers, Captain Babo and Lieutenant Wesselhoeft having been drowned at Ball's Bluff and Captain Dreher being severely wounded there and mortally at Fredericksburg. They were also in one respect peculiarly situated, forming a part of a regiment which, although fine in material and discipline and eminent in service, was for a time somewhat divided by what General Devens criticised as ‘the blue-blood theory’ of promotion, and still more by the inclination of some of its very best officers to return fugitive slaves, under the wish and even orders of Gen. C. P. Stone. It is needless to say that the German companies were by no means on the conservative side on either question, and it is evident, from the correspondence in my hands, that some chafing grew out of this fact. It even appears that when General Stone was finally arrested for treason and imprisoned, one

1 Rosengarten, p. 195.

2 There were, for instance, many German recruits sent out to the 1st Mass. Cavalry. See Crowninshield's history of that regiment, p. 248.

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