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[16] was that of Charles Russell Lowell, Jr., afterwards well known as a general of cavalry, who, on hearing of the occurrences of April 19 in Baltimore, set forth alone by rail, made his way from Baltimore to Washington on foot, by circuitous routes and under various disguises, and in Washington aided in the preparations for defence, having filed his application for a commission as lieutenant in the regular army. He was also employed as a scout and as a semi-official agent for Massachusetts. Later in the war he died of wounds received at Cedar Creek, Va.1 Another and an earlier instance was that of Dexter F. Parker of Worcester, a young mechanic of marked literary tastes, who had already at thirty years of age represented Worcester in both branches of the State Legislature, and who, when the call for troops was issued, enlisted in the Worcester Light Infantry, but went alone to Washington in advance, and was one of the few who aided in measures for its defence until his regiment, the 6th, arrived from its bloody march through Baltimore. He afterwards rose to be major of the 10th Mass. Infantry, and died after the amputation of an arm, which was rendered necessary by wounds received at Spotsylvania.2 Such instances as these showed the spirit which then pervaded multitudes of young men in all occupations.

If it be asked what circumstances enabled the State of Massachusetts to respond thus promptly in time of need, it must be attributed in part to the old revolutionary traditions of her people and in part also to the foresight of two successive governors; that of Governor Banks, in developing the regimental organization of the militia, before regarded merely as a series of detached companies; and that of Governor Andrew, in ordering first an accurate levy of the militia3 and then recommending (against disapproval and even derision) that the State should contract for overcoats, blankets, knapsacks and ball cartridges for two thousand troops. There were already in the armory of the State when the war broke out three thousand Springfield rifled muskets of the best pattern. Trivial as this

1 See his memoir in Harvard Memorial Biographies, I, 296.

2 See his memoir in Marvin's Worcester in the War, p. 489. It is a curious illustration of the condition of discipline in the early part of the war that this officer's appointment as major from outside the regiment (Aug. 12, 1862) led to the resignation and dismissal of nine line officers who had served with it from the beginning, their cashiering or dismissal dating Nov. 25, 1862. (Adjutant-General's report, January, 1863, p. 127.)

3 G. O. 4, Jan. 16, 1861.

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