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‘ [37] yield; and wound up with this vehement commentary, “Julius Caesar himself couldn't raise a company for an old regiment in Massachusetts, as long as there is a shoemaker left to make a captain of.” ’1

This sufficiently refutes the claim sometimes made that this substitution of new regiments for old was Governor Andrew's own policy,2 but it leaves the question still open why this policy was necessary in Massachusetts and not in Vermont or in the Western States. As regards Vermont, the case is very simple. It was the only Northern State in which the State regiments were regularly brigaded together, so that the local esprit de corps was thus retained. The officers of the brigade were well known, the State was a small one, and every recruit felt that he should in any case be practically among his neighbors. It was this very strength of local feeling which made the demand for new regiments in Massachusetts. As to the West, a vivid sense of the difference in this respect between an older State and a newer one will be found by simply comparing the published rosters and noting a single point. Every catalogue of Massachusetts soldiers designates the town where each one lived, while in corresponding catalogues of Western soldiers, as of those from Minnesota, for instance, not a town is mentioned, —every man belonged to the State only. It is perhaps the price that Massachusetts pays for that township system which Jefferson thought so powerful. If a Minnesota man wished to go to the war, he went; if it were among strangers, no matter; he had spent his life among strangers, or at least among recent acquaintances. Even in Minnesota it was easier to create new regiments than to fill up old ones. ‘To fill the existing regiments required only individual enlistments; but they had ceased to be spontaneous, as they had been in the beginning, and it was much easier to raise a new regiment, with the aid of those who expected to be commissioned in it, than to enlist the same number of men for regiments already at the front.’3

1 Walcott's 21st Mass., p. 222. The officer who wrote that book resigned from his command in April, 1863, because his company, with a captain, two lieutenants and a full list of non-commissioned officers, had but six privates present for duty (p. 269). He was afterwards commissioned as colonel of the 60th Mass.

2 ‘It was the policy of Governor Andrew to keep the regiments in the service full, rather than to organize new regiments while the old regiments were wanting men. In pursuance of this policy, seven thousand men were enlisted during the year 1862, assigned to regiments in the field and forwarded to their several destinations.’ (Schouler's Massachusetts in the Civil War, I, 336.) ‘Generals Halleck, Burnside, Reno, Parke, Cullom and Sedgwick have all made most earnest inquiries concerning the success of the recruiting in Massachusetts, and expressed the greatest satisfaction at your determination to fill up the old regiments first.’ (Letter of Col. Harrison Ritchie to Governor Andrew from Harrison's Bar, James River, Va., July 28, 1862.) (Schouler, I, 308.)

3 Minnesota in the Civil War and Indian Wars, 1861-65 (official), p. 699.

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