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[56] spires of Richmond and hear the clocks of the city striking,1 but had then been driven back with seven days fighting to the James River. Among the general officers from Massachusetts who had distinguished themselves in this prolonged contest were Hooker, Keyes and Sumner; and among men of less experience, Devens.

Xiv. The Department of the Gulf.

When General Butler, on March 20, 1862, took command of the newly organized Department of the Gulf, he had with him about thirteen thousand five hundred men, a considerable proportion of these being Massachusetts soldiers. His three brigades included the 30th Mass. Infantry (Colonel Dudley), the 31st (Colonel Gooding), the 2d, 4th and 6th Mass. batteries (Captains Nims, Manning2 and Everett), Co. A, Ind. Battalion Mass. Cavalry (Captain Read), Co. B of the same (Captain Magee), and Co. C of the same (Captain Durivage).3 Of these, the 2d Mass. Battery was detained at sea and did not actually arrive until May 21.

The expectation was that this land force might be employed to take the forts that commanded the river, should the navy fail to reduce them. As a matter of fact the navy accomplished it; but Major Whittemore of the 30th Mass. occupied Fort St. Philip when surrendered, while Captain Manning, with the 4th Mass. Battery, occupied Fort Jackson. Both forts were afterward held by the 26th Mass. (Colonel Jones). On arrival at New Orleans, May 1, the 31st Mass., with a section of the 6th Mass. Battery, were among the troops that took possession of the city.

The 6th Mass. Battery took part in the occupation of Baton Rouge, and when General Williams left that town on June 20, in the unavailing hope of taking Vicksburg, the 30th Mass. formed a portion of the force, with the 2d Battery (Captain Nims) and part of the 6th Battery (Captain Everett) ; the rest of this last battery and C company of cavalry (2d Battalion) remaining behind.4

During the passage of Vicksburg by the navy, the eight guns of the two

1 Capt. R. C. Derby in The Young Captain, p. 141.

2 Succeeded, Oct. 20, 1862, by Captain Trull.

3 Captain Durivage was drowned April 23, 1862, and was succeeded by Captain Cowen. These three companies, at first an independent battalion, were afterwards consolidated with the 41st Mass. Infantry and became the 3d Mass. Cavalry (Colonel Chickering).

4 Irwin's 19th Army Corps, p. 22.

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