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‘ [71] Chantilly the conduct of our troops stands out in brilliant relief from the tactics of their commanders.’1

There happened afterwards at the Potomac fords a few small affairs in which the 1st Mass. Cavalry took part, especially at Monocacy Ford, near Poolesville, September 5, where one of its companies was sharply attacked by Longstreet's cavalry and had a few killed or wounded and lost some prisoners;2 but nothing more serious occurred before the opening of the Antietam campaign.

Xvi. The Antietam campaign.

On July 4, 1862, the President had called for three hundred thousand troops, and Governor Andrew, on July 7, for fifteen thousand. Within two months nine new three-years regiments had been filled (from the 33d to the 41st), besides the 9th and 10th batteries, and some four thousand recruits for old regiments. On August 4 the reverses of McClellan and Banks led to a new call for three hundred thousand nine-months troops, to be raised by draft if necessary; and seventeen Massachusetts militia regiments, numbering more than sixteen thousand men, were called out or enlisted for that term of service. These were the 6th, which was again first in the field, the 3d, 4th, 5th and 8th—all these being regiments that had already served—and twelve new nine-months regiments, from the 42d to the 53d inclusive. To these was added the 11th Battery; all this being the work of a single year. As one means of promoting the necessary enlistments, Governor Andrew recommended, August 23, that business should be suspended in the towns and cities of the Commonwealth for one week, in order that the citizens should devote their whole time to filling the required quota. As a result, no draft became necessary until nearly a year later, June, 1863, and not then upon any very large scale.

At the battle of South Mountain, September 14, the prelude to Antietam, the 12th, 13th, 21st, 28th and 35th Mass. infantries were engaged, with the 1st and 8th batteries. General McClellan wrote of this battle, as a whole, ‘The troops behaved magnificently. They never fought better.’3 The 12th and 28th infantries and the 1st Battery lost one killed

1 Bird's Eye View, p. 80. For the demoralization of the army under Pope, see Walcott's 21st Mass. Infantry, p. 128.

2 Official War Records, XIX (2), 185.

3 Official War Records, XIX (2), 289.

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